This fact sheet is for men who are thinking about having high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to treat their prostate cancer.

Last updated: August 2017
To be reviewed: September 2018



  • Ahmed HU, Freeman A, Kirkham A, Sahu M, Scott R, Allen C, et al. Focal Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Phase I/II Trial. J Urol. 2011 Apr;185(4):1246–55.
  • Ahmed HU, Hindley RG, Dickinson L, Freeman A, Kirkham AP, Sahu M, et al. Focal therapy for localised unifocal and multifocal prostate cancer: a prospective development study. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(6):622–32.
  • Ahmed HU, Ishaq A, Zacharakis E, Shaw G, Illing R, Allen C, et al. Rectal fistulae after salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound for recurrent prostate cancer after combined brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. BJU Int. 2009 Feb;103(3):321–3.
  • Alkhorayef M, Mahmoud MZ, Alzimami KS, Sulieman A, Fagiri MA. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Localized Prostate Cancer Treatment. Pol J Radiol. 2015;80:131–41.
  • Alongi F, De Bari B, Campostrini F, Arcangeli S, Matei DV, Lopci E, et al. Salvage therapy of intraprostatic failure after radical external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: A review. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2013 Dec;88(3):550–63.
  • British Uro-oncology Group (BUG), British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS). Multi-disciplinary Team (MDT) Guidance for Managing Prostate Cancer. 2013.
  • Colombel M, Poissonnier L, Martin X, Gelet A. Clinical Results of the Prostate HIFU Project. Eur Urol Suppl. 2006 Apr;5(6):491–4.
  • Cordeiro ER, Cathelineau X, Thüroff S, Marberger M, Crouzet S, de la Rosette JJMCH. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for definitive treatment of prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2012 Nov;110(9):1228–42.
  • Crouzet S, Rouviere O, Martin X, Gelet A. High-intensity focused ultrasound as focal therapy of prostate cancer: Curr Opin Urol. 2014 May;24(3):225–30.
  • Grabe M, Bartoletti R, Bjerklund Johansen. Guidelines on Urological Infections. EAU; 2015.
  • Illing R, Emberton M. Sonablate®-500: transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound for the treatment of prostate cancer. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2006 Nov;3(6):717–29.
  • Linder BJ, Umbreit EC, Larson D, Dozois EJ, Thapa P, Elliott DS. Effect of Prior Radiotherapy and Ablative Therapy on Surgical Outcomes for the Treatment of Rectourethral Fistulas. J Urol. 2013 Oct;190(4):1287–91.
  • Lukka H, Waldron T, Chin J, Mayhew L, Warde P, Winquist E, et al. High-intensity Focused Ultrasound for Prostate Cancer: a Systematic Review. Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar;23(2):117–27.
  • Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Briers E, Van den Bergh RCN, Bolla M, Van Casteren NJ, et al. Guidelines on prostate cancer. European Association of Urology; 2015.
  • Muller BG, Fütterer JJ, Gupta RT, Katz A, Kirkham A, Kurhanewicz J, et al. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in focal therapy for prostate cancer: recommendations from a consensus panel: Role of MRI in focal therapy for prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2014 Feb;113(2):218–27.
  • Mundy AR, Andrich DE. Urorectal fistulae following the treatment of prostate cancer: URORECTAL FISTULAE AFTER PROSTATE CANCER TREATMENT. BJU Int. 2011 Apr;107(8):1298–303.
  • National Institute for Clinical Excellence. NICE Interventional Procedure Guidance HIFU. 2004.
  • National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Treating localised prostate cancer using high-intensity ultrasound in a targeted area of the prostate.pdf. 2012.
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate Cancer: diagnosis and treatment. Full guideline 175. 2014.
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Focal therapy using high-intensity focused ultrasound for localised prostate cancer. NICE interventional procedure guidance 424. 2012.
  • NHS Choices. Testicular lumps and swellings - Causes - NHS Choices [Internet]. NHS Choices. 2014 [cited 2015 Nov 5]. Available from:
  • Palermo G, Pinto F, Totaro A, Miglioranza E, Calarco A, Sacco E, et al. High-intensity focused ultrasound in prostate cancer: today’s outcomes and tomorrow’s perspectives. Scand J Urol. 2013 Jun;47(3):179–87.
  • Ramsay CR, Adewuyi TE, Gray J, Hislop J, Shirley MD, Jayakody S, et al. Ablative therapy for people with localised prostate cancer: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2015 Jul;19(49):1–490.
  • Rebillard X, Soulié M, Chartier-Kastler E, Davin J-L, Mignard J-P, Moreau J-L, et al. High-intensity focused ultrasound in prostate cancer; a systematic literature review of the French Association of Urology. BJU Int. 2008 May;101(10):1205–13.
  • Sung HH, Jeong BC, Seo SI, Jeon SS, Choi H-Y, Lee HM. Seven years of experience with high-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer: Advantages and limitations. The Prostate. 2012 Sep 15;72(13):1399–406.
  • Thüroff S, Chaussy C. Evolution and Outcomes of 3 MHz High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer During 15 Years. J Urol. 2013 Aug;190(2):702–10.
  • Uchida T, Nakano M, Hongo S, Shoji S, Nagata Y, Satoh T, et al. High-intensity focused ultrasound therapy for prostate cancer: HIFU and prostate cancer. Int J Urol. 2012 Mar;19(3):187–201.
  • University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (UCLH). UCLH Patient Information Sheet for Focal HIFU in men with localised prostate cancer - the ‘INDEX’ study. University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (UCLH); 2014.
  • Warmuth M, Johansson T, Mad P. Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of High-Intensity Focussed Ultrasound for the Primary and Salvage Treatment of Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol. 2010 Dec;58(6):803–15.
  • Yutkin V, Ahmed HU, Donaldson I, McCartan N, Siddiqui K, Emberton M, et al. Salvage High-intensity Focused Ultrasound for Patients With Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Brachytherapy. Urology. 2014 Nov;84(5):1157–62.

About this publication  

This fact sheet is for men who are thinking about having high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to treat their prostate cancer.

Order printed copies of this publication

Before you order we would like to know who you are, and why you are ordering printed copies.

Download digital versions of this publication