We don’t know for certain whether any foods increase the risk of prostate cancer. But some foods might increase your risk if you eat a lot of them.
Eating or drinking lots of dairy products, such as milk, yoghurt and cheese, might increase your risk of prostate cancer. We don't know why this is but it might be because of the calcium in them.
Aim for three portions of dairy a day. Dairy alternatives with added calcium, such as soya yoghurt or soya milk, also count as dairy foods. A portion is one small pot of yoghurt, a glass of milk or a small piece of cheese (matchbox-sized or 30g). Choose lower-fat and lower-sugar options when you can.
Having too much calcium in your diet might increase your risk of prostate cancer. But you do need about 700mg a day to keep your bones healthy. You can get this from a balanced diet. For example, a 200ml glass of milk contains 240mg of calcium and a small yoghurt contains about 200mg. You can also get small amounts of calcium from meat, fish, nuts, pulses, fruit and vegetables.
Processed and red meat
Eating red and processed meat increases your risk of some types of cancer. We don't know if it increases the risk of prostate cancer. Red meat includes beef, pork, lamb or goat. Processed meat includes ham, bacon and other cured or preserved meats.
The World Cancer Research Fund recommends eating no more than 500g of cooked red meat per week (700 to 750g when raw), and avoiding processed meat. A medium portion of cooked roast beef is usually about 90g and a medium cooked steak is 145g.
Drinking alcohol increases the risk of some types of cancer. We don't know if it increases the risk of prostate cancer.
Limit the amount of alcohol you drink to 14 units a week. This is about six pints of average-strength or six small glasses (175ml) of average-strength wine. Try to spread this out throughout the week and have some alcohol-free days.
Visit the NHS website for more information about alcohol units and how to cut back on the amount of alcohol you drink.