Updated: June 2020 | To be reviewed: August 2021

  • List of references  

    • Barber L, Gerke T, Markt SC, et al. Family History of Breast or Prostate Cancer and Prostate Cancer Risk. Clin Cancer Res. 2018;24(23):5910-5917. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-0370
    • Cancer Research UK. Cancer incidence for common cancers (2015). Available from: Accessed December 12, 2018
    • Cancer Research UK. Prostate cancer incidence statistics: Lifetime risk of prostate cancer (2012) [Internet]. Available from: Accessed December 12, 2018.
    • Cancer Research UK. Prostate cancer incidence statistics: Prostate cancer incidence by age (2011-2013). Available from: Accessed December 12, 2018.
    • Kheirandish P, Chinegwundoh F. Ethnic differences in prostate cancer. Br J Cancer. 2011 Aug 9;105(4):481–5.
    • Kiciński M, Vangronsveld J, Nawrot TS. An Epidemiological Reappraisal of the Familial Aggregation of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. Little J, editor. PLoS ONE. 2011 Oct 31;6(10):e27130.
    • Lamy P-J, Trétarre B, Rebillard X, Sanchez M, Cénée S, Ménégaux F. Family history of breast cancer increases the risk of prostate cancer: results from the EPICAP study. Oncotarget. May 2018. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.25320
    • Lloyd T, Hounsome L, Mehay A, Mee S, Verne J, Cooper A. Lifetime risk of being diagnosed with, or dying from, prostate cancer by major ethnic group in England 2008–2010. BMC Med. 2015 Jul 30;13(1):171.
    • Rebbeck TR, Devesa SS, Chang B-L, Bunker CH, Cheng I, Cooney K, et al. Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent. Prostate Cancer. 2013;2013:1–12.
  • List of reviewers  

    • Miranda Benney, Cancer Clinical Programme Manager, University Hospitals Plymouth
    • Simon Bott, Consultant Urologist, Frimley Health NHS Foundation Trust, Portsmouth
    • Frank Chinegwundoh, Consultant Urological Surgeon, Barts Health NHS Trust, London
    • Christopher Eden, Consultant Urological Surgeon, The Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford
    • Our Specialist Nurses
    • Our Volunteers.