This fact sheet explains some of the medical words that you may read or hear when you are finding out about prostate cancer or other prostate problems.

Last updated: December 2014
Due to be reviewed: October 2018


  • Agarwal G & Spiess PE. Prostate cancer: Focal cryotherapy freezes recurrent disease in its tracks. Nat Rev Urol. 2013 Oct;10(10):562-3.
  • Albertsen PC, Hanley JA, Fine J. 20-year outcomes following conservative management of clinically localized prostate cancer. JAMA; 2005.
  • British Uro-oncology Group, British Association of Urological Surgeons: Section of Oncology. Multi-disciplinary team (MDT) guidance for managing prostate cancer. September 2013.
  • Campbell SE, Glazener CMA, Hunter KF et al. Conservative management for postprostatectomy urinary incontinence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 1.
  • Dearnaley D, Syndikus I, Sumo G, et al. Conventional versus hypofractionated high-dose intensity modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: preliminary safety results from the CHHiP randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:43–54
  • De Bono JS, Logothetis Cj, Molina A et al. Abiraterone and increased survival in metastatic prostate cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;364(21):1995-2005.
  • Dorey G, Speakman MJ, Feneley RC et al. Pelvic floor exercises for erectile dysfunction. BJU International 2005;96;595-597
  • Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J, et al. Guidelines on prostate cancer. European Associationn of Urology, March 2013.
  • Koontz BF, Lee WR. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer. [Review]. Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America 2013;22(3):483–94.
  • Kulik A, Dąbkowski M. Prostate cancer radiotherapy. Contemporary Oncology 2011;15(5):317-22
  • Lumen N, Ost P, Van Praet C, et al. Developments in external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Urology 2013;82(1):510
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Metastatic spinal cord compression: Diagnosis and management of adults at risk of and with metastatic spinal cord compression. 2008
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment. Clinical guideline 175. January 2014
  • Nguyen HD, Allen BJ, Pow-Sang JM. Focal cryotherapy in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Cancer Control. 2013 Jul;20(3):177-80.
  • Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme information for primary care; PSA testing in asymptomatic men. Evidence document January 2010
  • Selvadurai ED, Singhera M, Thomas K, et al. Medium-term outcomes of active surveillance for localised prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2013; 64 (6): 981-87.

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