A healthy diet and regular physical activity are important for general health and can help you stay a healthy weight. This may be particularly important if you have prostate cancer, as there is strong evidence that being overweight raises the risk of aggressive (more likely to spread) or advanced prostate cancer.

A healthy lifestyle can also help manage many of the side effects of treatments for prostate cancer.

We don't recommend any set diet or exercise programme. Instead, we suggest some changes to improve your overall health, and that might help with your prostate cancer.

Why is a healthy lifestyle important?

A healthy lifestyle can give you more control over your health and help you to improve it. Lots of things can affect your health, including the following.

  • Body weight  

    Staying a healthy weight can lower your risk of many health problems, including heart disease, type-2 diabetes and some cancers. There is also strong evidence that being overweight raises the risk of aggressive or advanced prostate cancer. So it may be particularly important for men with prostate cancer to stay a healthy weight.

    Being a healthy weight may mean your prostate cancer is less likely to spread after surgery or radiotherapy. Hormone therapy might also be less effective if you're very overweight. And staying a healthy weight may help you manage or reduce some of the side effects of treatments, such as urinary problems after surgery.

    What if I'm underweight?

    Being underweight can also affect your health. For example, underweight men have a higher risk of bone thinning. Some types of hormone therapy can also cause bone thinning, so men on hormone therapy may be particularly at risk of bone thinning if they are also underweight. And being underweight can also slow your recovery from treatments such as surgery.

    If you're underweight and are struggling to put on weight, speak to your GP. They may check to see if you have any other health problems that could be causing your weight loss. They may also refer you to a dietitian to help you put on some weight.

    How do I know if I'm a healthy weight?

    Your body mass index (BMI) can be a good way to check if you're a healthy weight for your height. The NHS Choices website has information about how to work out your BMI.

    Another way to check if you’re a healthy weight is to measure the size of your waist, as carrying fat around your middle can raise the risk of heart disease and other health problems. Wrap a tape measure around your body, half-way between the top of your hips and the bottom of your ribs. Don't suck your tummy in, just breathe out naturally.

    For a man, if your waist size is 94cm (37 inches) or more, you have a higher risk of health problems. If it's 102cm (40 inches) or more, you're at much higher risk.

    Losing weight safely

    It’s important to lose weight steadily by making healthy changes to your diet, and slowly increasing the amount of exercise you do. Try to avoid popular short-term diets that cause very quick weight loss. They often cut out important food groups or can be too low in calories. If you lose weight too quickly by not eating enough, your body might not get all the nutrients it needs. And if you don't keep eating healthily after losing weight, you may put the weight back on again. Read more about healthy eating and physical activity.

    Getting support

    Talk to your doctor if you’re worried about your weight. They can help you think about suitable changes to your diet or physical activity. They may be able to refer you to a dietitian or exercise programme. You can also get more information from other organisations.

  • Diet  

    A healthy diet is important for your overall health. It can help you stay a healthy weight and can lower your risk of health problems such as heart disease, type-2 diabetes and some cancers. Read more about healthy eating.

    You may have heard of certain foods or diets that might be helpful for men with prostate cancer, and some that might be harmful. Unfortunately, different studies have had different results, so we don't know for sure whether specific foods can affect the growth of prostate cancer or the risk of it spreading.

    However, some changes to your diet may help reduce or manage some of the side effects of prostate cancer treatment. And some men with prostate cancer find that changing their diet helps them feel more in control.

  • Physical activity  

    Physical activity is any type of body movement that uses energy. It doesn’t have to be a sport or going to the gym – it could be walking, swimming or gardening. We don't know for sure if physical activity can help slow the growth of prostate cancer, but we do know that it's important for your overall health and wellbeing. 

    Being active can also help with some of the side effects of treatment. And exercise may lift your mood and help you cope with feelings of anxiety or depression

    Read more about physical activity.

  • Alcohol  

    We don’t know if alcohol has any specific effect on men with prostate cancer. But we do know that drinking too much alcohol can make you put on weight and cause other health problems, such as heart and liver disease and some cancers.

    The government recommends that men should not regularly drink more than 14 units of alcohol per week. That’s equal to six pints of average-strength beer or six small glasses of average-strength wine. Try to spread this out over the week and have some alcohol-free days.

    How many units of alcohol are in a drink?

    • A pint of lager, beer or cider (4 per cent alcohol) contains 2-3 units.
    • A 175ml glass of wine (12 per cent alcohol) contains about 2 units.
    • A 25ml measure of spirit (40 per cent alcohol) contains 1 unit.

    Speak to your doctor or nurse about whether it's okay to drink alcohol if you're having prostate cancer treatment. If you have urinary problems after treatment, try to drink less alcohol. Alcohol can irritate the bladder and make urinary problems worse. NHS Choices has lots of tips on drinking less alcohol and getting support.

  • Smoking  

    Smoking can cause health problems such as heart disease, stroke and some types of cancer. It may also be harmful for men with prostate cancer.

    Some research suggests that smoking makes prostate cancer more likely to grow and spread to other parts of the body (advanced prostate cancer). And the more you smoke, the greater the risk.

    Smoking may also make prostate cancer more likely to come back after surgery or radiotherapy. And heavy smoking may mean you’re more likely to die from prostate cancer. But the good news is that if you stop smoking, your risk should start to drop – and after 10 years it could be as low as for men who have never smoked.

    Stopping smoking can also help with the side effects of prostate cancer treatment. For example, you may be less likely to get certain urinary problems after radiotherapy. And stopping smoking may help to protect your bone health if you're having hormone therapy.

    For information about stopping smoking, talk to your doctor or visit the NHS Choices website.

How can I eat more healthily?

If you decide to improve your diet, remember that food is an enjoyable and often social part of life. You should still be able to enjoy your meals and occasional treats.

A healthy diet doesn’t need to be boring. In fact, it’s good to eat a variety of different foods so that you get a range of nutrients. You could try some new foods to add more variety to your meals. For example, you could try a new fruit or vegetable each week.

Set yourself realistic goals and start by making small changes that you feel comfortable with. Trying to make lots of big changes all at once can be difficult, and you may find it hard to keep them going over time.

Try to cut down on unhealthy foods and drinks, such as those high in sugar or saturated fat, and those with added flavouring or preservatives. Look at the labels on packaged foods to find out how many calories (energy), and how much fat, salt and sugar are in them. You can then compare different products to find the healthiest ones. Remember that low-fat foods aren’t always the best option – some may still be high in sugar or calories.

If you want help to improve your diet, ask your doctor to refer you to a dietitian. They can help if you want to make big changes to your diet, or if you have other health problems that could be affected by your diet, such as diabetes.

Fruit and vegetables

Fruit and vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet and a good source of vitamins, minerals and fibre. Eating lots of fruit and vegetables helps to lower your risk of health problems, including heart disease and some cancers. It can also help you lose weight or stay a healthy weight.

Aim to eat at least five servings of fruit and vegetables each day. They can be fresh, frozen, dried or tinned with no added sugar or salt. One serving is roughly one handful or 80g in weight. Try to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables of different colours each day, as they contain different nutrients.

Five servings may sound like a lot, but if you try to include one or two servings in each meal, and choose fruit as snacks, this should be enough. The NHS website has lots of examples of single servings.

Starchy foods

Starchy foods give you energy and help you to feel full for longer, so it’s important to include them in your diet. Aim to have a portion at each mealtime.

Starchy foods include cereals, potatoes, bread, rice, pasta, plantain, sweet potato and yam. Choose wholegrain (for example, whole rolled oats, corn, quinoa, granary bread, brown rice) and other high-fibre options (for example, potatoes with their skins on, pulses and beans) where possible. As a general rule, a portion of starchy food is about the size of your fist.

Protein-rich foods

Foods high in protein include beans, pulses, fish, eggs and meat. Aim to have 2-3 portions of protein a day.

Try to eat no more than 500g of cooked red meat (700 to 750g before cooking) a week. And avoid processed meat and meat cooked at very high temperatures, as this can increase your risk of bowel and stomach cancer. Red meat includes beef, pork and lamb. Processed meat is meat that has been preserved by smoking, curing or salting, or with preservatives. It includes ham, bacon and some sausages (for example, hot dogs, salami and pepperoni, but not plain sausages from a butcher).

You could choose white meat such as chicken with the skin removed or fish instead. Or you could eat beans, peas or lentils, which are lower in fat and higher in fibre than meat.

Dairy and dairy alternatives

Dairy foods are high in calcium. Calcium is important for strong bones and your overall health, so you need some in your diet – around 700mg per day. Some studies suggest that eating a lot of calcium might increase the risk of your prostate cancer growing and spreading. Other studies have found no link, but it may be an idea to avoid eating more than 2000mg of calcium – the amount in about 1.6 litres of milk – a day.

If you’re on hormone therapy, you’ll need extra calcium to protect your bones. This is because hormone therapy can cause bone thinning, which means your bones are more likely to break if you fall over. Men on hormone therapy should aim for 1200-1500mg of calcium (about 2-3 portions of dairy) each day. This is still a safe amount.

Choose low-fat options such as skimmed or semi-skimmed milk and reduced-fat cheese. There have been some studies that suggest high-fat dairy foods might increase the risk of your prostate cancer growing and spreading, but others have found no link.

Non-dairy sources of calcium include soya products with added calcium such as soya milk and yoghurt, green leafy vegetables, and fish where you eat the bones.

If you don’t think there’s enough calcium in your diet, speak to your doctor or nurse about taking calcium supplements.

How much calcium is there in different foods?

  • Semi-skimmed milk (200ml) – 245mg of calcium
  • Plain low-fat yoghurt (150g) – 245mg of calcium
  • Cheddar cheese (30g) – 205mg of calcium
  • Tinned sardines with bones (100g) – 500mg of calcium
  • Kale (95g) – 145mg of calcium
  • Tofu (100g) – 110mg of calcium
  • Kidney beans (60g) – 45mg of calcium
  • Broccoli (85g) – 35mg of calcium
  • Non-dairy alternatives, such as soya milk – varies, choose one with added calcium.

High-fat foods

You need to eat some fat for your body to function properly. But eating too much fat can make you put on weight, which raises your risk of being diagnosed with aggressive or advanced prostate cancer. There are also different types of fat – saturated fat and unsaturated fat. Unsaturated fats are thought to be healthier than saturated fats.

Unsaturated fats are found in plant foods such as olive oil, vegetable oils, rapeseed oil, avocados, nuts and seeds, and in oily fish such as salmon, mackerel and sardines.

Saturated fats are found in meat, cakes, biscuits, pastries, butter, and high-fat dairy products such as cheese.

Replacing animal fats with vegetable oils may help men with prostate cancer to live for longer. There is also some research that suggests eating lots of saturated fat might be linked with an increased risk of prostate cancer coming back after surgery, and of developing advanced prostate cancer. But we need more research to know for sure whether this is the case, as other studies haven’t found a link.

Ways to eat less total fat and saturated fat

  • Choose tomato-based sauces instead of creamy ones.
  • Replace fatty snacks such as crisps and biscuits with healthier options such as fruit.
  • Avoid sausages, burgers and processed meat such as ham and bacon.
  • Eat less red meat and remove any visible fat. Try eating chicken or fish instead.
  • Remove any skin from chicken or turkey. The skin contains lots of saturated fat.
  • Add less oil, butter or other cooking fats when you cook.
  • Grill, bake or steam food instead of frying.
  • Choose rapeseed oil for cooking and olive oil for salad dressings.
  • Eat healthy fats from plant foods, such as avocados, nuts and seeds.
  • Choose low-fat or fat-free milk, cheese and yoghurt, or use soya milk, rice milk or oat milk instead of dairy products.

Watch our short film and join David as he takes part in a healthy cooking course, run by Focus on Food, Dean Clough Foundation and Prostate Cancer UK.

  • Ten steps to eating well  

    1. Eat three meals a day. If you don’t feel hungry or you have difficulty eating, try to eat small amounts often instead. If you’re struggling to eat because of nausea (feeling sick), try to avoid smelly foods. Cold foods tend to smell less, or it may help if someone cooks for you.
    2. Include all the food groups. The NHS Choices website has information about the proportions you should include in your diet to get the right balance of nutrients.
    3. Eat at least five servings of fruit and vegetables each day.
    4. Base your meals on starchy foods.
    5. Eat a variety of foods high in protein.
    6. Eat some dairy foods or non-dairy sources of calcium.
    7. Choose unsaturated oils and spreads and eat these in small amounts.
    8. Eat less sugar. Sugary foods include cakes, biscuits, puddings and sugary drinks.
    9. Cut down on salt. Eat less than 6g of salt each day. Check the labels and look out for hidden salt in processed foods, such as bread, cereals, bacon and takeaways. Avoid adding salt when you cook – try using herbs and spices to add flavour instead, or use low-salt alternatives.
    10. Drink lots of fluids. Try to drink around 1.5 to 2 litres (3 to 4 pints) a day, which is about 6 to 8 glasses. Avoid drinking late in the evening and drinks containing caffeine (such as tea, coffee and cola) if you have urinary problems.

Where can I find healthy recipes?

It's always best to speak to your doctor or a dietitian before changing your diet. Depending on your situation, the treatment you've had and your general health, you may need to eat more or less of certain foods.

Unless your doctor or dietitian recommends a specific diet, it's best to have a healthy and balanced diet. Healthy recipes are available from:

You can find information on how much of what you eat should come from each food group, as well as examples or portion sizes at:

What type of physical activity should I do?

The type of physical activity you do isn’t really important – the main thing is to get active. If you find an activity you enjoy that fits into your life, you’re more likely to keep doing it. The following tips may help.

  • Walking, swimming, cycling and gardening are all good exercise.
  • You can do simple things, such as getting off the bus one stop earlier, or using stairs rather than a lift.
  • You can even exercise from your chair or bed. Lifting and stretching your arms and legs can help improve your movement and muscle strength. Visit the NHS website for exercises to do while sitting down.
  • If you’re trying to be more active, an exercise programme such as walking 10,000 steps a day can be useful. You might not manage this at first – just do what you can, and try to walk a little further each day. Visit the NHS website to find out more.
  • Gentle resistance exercise, such as lifting light weights or using elastic resistance bands, is particularly good if you’re on hormone therapy and are at risk of bone thinning.
  • Try a variety of activities or sports so that you don’t get bored, and set some goals to aim for. You may prefer to exercise with a friend or in a group.

How much physical activity should I do?

This will depend on many things, including the stage of your cancer, any treatments you're having, and your fitness levels. Even if you can’t do a lot of physical activity, a small amount can still help. Take things at your own pace and don’t do too much. Make sure you rest when you feel you need to.

Aim to be physically active at least two to three times a week. If you're not usually active, start gently for short periods of time, such as 10 to 15 minutes, and gradually exercise for longer as you become fitter. If you can, work up to 30 minutes of moderate exercise on three to five days a week.

Moderate exercise means your heart should beat faster but you should still be able to talk – about the level of a brisk walk. 30 minutes may seem like a lot, but remember you can reach this amount by being active for 10 minutes, three times a day.

It’s usually safe for men with prostate cancer and those having treatment to be physically active. But it's still a good idea to speak to your GP, nurse or hospital doctor before you start any kind of exercise plan. This is particularly important if you have other health problems, such as heart disease or problems with your joints or muscles. They can talk to you about exercising safely and may refer you to an exercise programme or a physiotherapist who can help you plan your exercise.

If you’re on hormone therapy or have cancer that has spread to the bones, check with your doctor before doing high-impact exercises such as running and contact sports.

Can I exercise after surgery?

If you’re having surgery to remove your prostate, you’ll need to take it easy for the first few weeks after your operation. Your surgeon may suggest taking a short walk each day, starting on the day after your operation. It's important to only do light and gentle exercise so that your body has time to heal properly.

You should avoid any heavy physical exercise for the first four to six weeks. If possible, avoid climbing lots of stairs, lifting heavy objects or doing manual work during this time. Talk to your doctor or nurse about what's safe for you and when.

  • Exercising safely  

    • Be careful to avoid activities where you could fall, especially if you’re on hormone therapy or your cancer has spread to the bones, as you're more likely to break a bone if you fall.
    • Wear clothing and trainers that fit properly and don’t exercise on uneven surfaces, to avoid tripping over.
    • Make sure you drink enough water.
    • Don’t exercise if you feel unwell, or have any pain, sickness or other unusual symptoms. Stop if you get any of these while exercising.
    • If you’re having radiotherapy and have any skin irritation, avoid swimming pools as chlorine can make this worse.
    • If you're overweight or have heart problems, check what type of exercise is safe for you with your doctor or nurse.

    Find out more ways you can be active.

How can a healthy lifestyle help with side effects of treatment?

All treatments for prostate cancer can cause side effects. There are treatments available to help manage these, and diet and physical activity can often help too.

Weight gain

Some men put on weight while they are on hormone therapy, particularly around the waist. Being active and eating well can help. But if you’re struggling to lose weight, ask your doctor to refer you to a dietitian or weight-loss programme.

Heart disease and diabetes

Hormone therapy may increase your risk of heart disease and type-2 diabetes. A healthy diet and being active can help prevent them.

Bone thinning

Being on hormone therapy for a long time can gradually make your bones weaker. This is known as bone thinning. It can lead to a condition called osteoporosis, where the bones become weak and are more likely to break (fracture). A number of lifestyle changes may help to keep your bones healthy.

Calcium and vitamin D are important for strong bones. Most of your vitamin D is made inside the body when your skin is exposed to sunlight. But it can be difficult for your body to make enough vitamin D from sunlight alone, especially in winter. You can also get vitamin D from eating oily fish, such as salmon, mackerel and sardines, or foods with added vitamin D, like margarine and some breakfast cereals. You may need to take calcium and vitamin D supplements to help lower your risk of bone thinning – speak to your doctor about this.

Drinking a lot of alcohol and smoking can both raise your risk of bone thinning or osteoporosis.

We don’t yet know whether exercise can help to prevent bone thinning in men who are on hormone therapy. But regular physical activity could help to keep you strong and prevent falls that could cause broken bones. These types of exercises may be particularly helpful:

  • gentle resistance exercise, such as lifting light weights or using elastic resistance bands
  • weight-bearing exercise, where you’re standing up and have to support your own weight, such as walking, climbing stairs, tennis and dancing.

Strength and muscle loss

Hormone therapy can cause a loss of muscle tissue so that you feel less physically strong. Regular, gentle resistance exercise, such as lifting light weights, can help with muscle loss and keep your muscles strong.

Hot flushes

Hot flushes are a common side effect of hormone therapy. Staying a healthy weight may help you manage hot flushes. Try to cut down on spicy foods, alcohol and drinks that contain caffeine, such as tea and coffee.

Some men use herbal remedies to help manage their hot flushes, such as sage tea or supplements containing black cohosh. There is no scientific evidence that these are effective and some, including black cohosh, may be harmful. Speak to your doctor before taking any herbal remedies.

Extreme tiredness (fatigue)

Some treatments for prostate cancer, including hormone therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, can cause extreme tiredness. Light to moderate exercise, such as walking or swimming, can make you feel more awake. And doing this type of exercise along with strength training, such as lifting light weights, may be even more effective.

We have lots of information on fatigue on our website, as well as an interactive online guide with tips to help you manage fatigue. You might also want to try our Specialist Nurse-led fatigue support service, which can help you make lifestyle changes that should improve your fatigue over time.

Anxiety and depression

Many men with prostate cancer feel anxious and worried at times. If your mood is often very low or your sleep pattern or appetite has changed a lot, this could be a sign of depression. Some treatments for prostate cancer, such as hormone therapy and chemotherapy, can also cause depression and mood swings.

Regular physical activity can often help you deal with feelings of anxiety and depression and improve your day to day life. Learning ways to relax, such as yoga or meditation, might also help.

Bowel problems

If you’re having radiotherapy, you may get bowel problems during and after treatment. These might include loose and watery bowel movements (diarrhoea). Eating less fibre for a short time might help with this, although the evidence for this isn’t very strong.

High-fibre foods to avoid include fruits and vegetables. Stick with low-fibre foods which include white rice, pasta and bread, potatoes without the skins, cornmeal, eggs and lean white meat. Make sure you drink lots of water to replace the liquid your body is losing.

If you find you’re bloated or passing more wind than usual, there are certain foods you can try avoiding. These include beans, pulses, cruciferous vegetables (for example, cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower), onions, fizzy drinks and beer. Some people find that adding certain herbs or spices to their cooking, such as ginger, peppermint or dill, can help as well.

If you’re taking pain-relieving tablets, these can cause constipation (difficulty having a bowel movement). Try to drink lots of fluids – aim for about two litres (eight glasses) a day. If you don’t want to drink water, you could have other drinks such as squash with no added sugar, decaffeinated tea and coffee. Or you could flavour your water, for example with cucumber or fresh mint. Some men find drinking warm or hot water a few times a day helps. And eat high-fibre foods such as wholemeal bread, porridge and fruits, including prunes in particular.

Gentle exercise may also help with constipation. If things don’t improve, speak to your doctor. They may give you a medicine called a laxative to help empty your bowels.

Urinary problems

Some treatments for prostate cancer can cause difficulty urinating (peeing). Making some changes to your lifestyle could help. Try to drink plenty of fluids – 1.5 to 2 litres (3 to 4 pints) a day. But cut down on fizzy drinks, alcohol and drinks that contain caffeine – like tea, coffee and cola – as these can irritate the bladder. And avoid drinking a lot late in the day to avoid having to get up in the night.

Try to be active and stay a healthy weight, and avoid constipation as this puts pressure on the pelvic floor muscles and bladder, making urinary problems worse. If you smoke, try to stop because coughing also puts pressure on the pelvic floor muscles.

For more information on ways to manage urinary problems, take a look at our interactive online guide to managing urinary problems.

Changes to your sex life

Lifestyle changes, such as staying a healthy weight and being physically active, can help improve your sex life. Hormone therapy, for example, can cause changes to your sex life, including problems getting an erection and loss of desire for sex (low libido). But regular exercise may help you to feel more desire for sex, improve your self-esteem and give you more energy.

Read more about Sex and relationships. We also have lots of tips in our interactive online guide to sex and relationships.

Questions to ask your doctor or nurse

  • Are there any foods or supplements I should avoid during my treatment?
  • Are there any foods or supplements that might help with my side effects?
  • Are there any complementary therapies I should avoid with my treatment?
  • Are there any types of physical activity that would be particularly good for me?
  • Are there any types of physical activity I should avoid?
  • Are there any activity groups I can join?
  • What other support is available?

Reviewers

  • List of reviewers  

    • Miranda Benney, Macmillan Uro-oncology Clinical Nurse Specialist, Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust
    • Rachel Bracegirdle, Oncology Dietitian, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London
    • Simon Brewster, Consultant Urologist, Churchill Hospital, Oxford
    • Frank Chinegwundoh, Consultant Urological Surgeon, Barts Health NHS Trust
    • Jo Pain, Macmillan Specialist Community Dietitian, Gloucestershire Care Services NHS Trust
    • Nona Toothill, Urology Clinical Nurse Specialist, Airedale NHS Foundation Trust
    • Our volunteers
    • Our Specialist Nurses.

References

  • List of references  

    • Abrahamsen B, Brask-Lindemann D, Rubin KH, Schwarz P. A review of lifestyle, smoking and other modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. BoneKEy Rep. 2014 Sep 3;3:574.
    • Adler RA. Management of osteoporosis in men on androgen deprivation therapy. Maturitas. 2011 Feb;68(2):143–7.
    • Ahmadi H, Daneshmand S. Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: long-term safety and patient outcomes. Patient Relat Outcome Meas. 2014 Jul;63.
    • Ahmadi H, Daneshmand S. Androgen deprivation therapy: evidence-based management of side effects. BJU Int. 2013 Apr;111(4):543–8.
    • Allan CA, Collins VR, Frydenberg M, McLachlan RI, Matthiesson KL. Androgen deprivation therapy complications. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014 Jul 22;21(4):T119–29.
    • Allott EH, Masko EM, Freedland SJ. Obesity and Prostate Cancer: Weighing the Evidence. Eur Urol. 2013 May;63(5):800–9.
    • American Cancer Society. Physical Activity and the Cancer Patient [Internet]. American Cancer Society. 2014 [cited 2015 Jan 8]. Available from: http://www.cancer.org/treatment/survivorshipduringandaftertreatment/stayingactive/physical-activity-and-the-cancer-patient
    • Aune D, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Chan DS, Vieira AR, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, et al. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jan;101(1):87–117.
    • Bagnardi V, Rota M, Botteri E, Tramacere I, Islami F, Fedirko V, et al. Alcohol consumption and site-specific cancer risk: a comprehensive dose–response meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2015 Feb 3;112(3):580–93.
    • Baumann FT, Zopf EM, Bloch W. Clinical exercise interventions in prostate cancer patients: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20(2):221–33.
    • Bishop FL, Rea A, Lewith H, Chan YK, Saville J, Prescott P, et al. Complementary medicine use by men with prostate cancer: a systematic review of prevalence studies. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2010;14(1):1–13.
    • Bolam KA, Galvão DA, Spry N, Newton RU, Taaffe DR. AST-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer: exercise as a potential countermeasure. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2012 Jun 26;15(4):329–38.
    • Bosland MC, Kato I, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Schmoll J, Enk Rueter E, Melamed J, et al. Effect of Soy Protein Isolate Supplementation on Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy: A Randomized Trial. JAMA. 2013 Jul 10;310(2):170.
    • Bourke L, Homer KE, Thaha MA, Steed L, Rosario DJ, Robb KA, et al. Interventions for promoting habitual exercise in people living with and beyond cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Sep 24;
    • Bourke L, Smith D, Steed L, Hooper R, Carter A, Catto J, et al. Exercise for Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2016 Apr;69(4):693–703.
    • British Dietetic Association. Fats - Getting the balance right. 2012.
    • British Dietetic Association. Malnutrition food fact sheet. British Dietetic Association; 2015.
    • British Dietetic Association. Supplements [Internet]. 2016. Available from: https://www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts/supplements.pdf
    • Budäus L, Bolla M, Bossi A, Cozzarini C, Crook J, Widmark A, et al. Functional outcomes and complications following radiation therapy for prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature. Eur Urol. 2012;61(1):112–27.
    • Bylsma LC, Alexander DD. A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat, meat cooking methods, heme iron, heterocyclic amines and prostate cancer. Nutr J [Internet]. 2015 Dec [cited 2017 Jun 6];14(1). Available from: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/14/1/125
    • Cao Y, Ma J. Body Mass Index, Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality, and Biochemical Recurrence: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2011 Jan 13;4(4):486–501.
    • Chan JM, Elkin EP, Silva SJ, Broering JM, Latini DM, Carroll PR. Total and specific complementary and alternative medicine use in a large cohort of men with prostate cancer. Urology. 2005 Dec;66(6):1223–8.
    • Chan JM, Van Blarigan EL, Kenfield SA. What should we tell prostate cancer patients about (secondary) prevention?: Curr Opin Urol. 2014 May;24(3):318–23.
    • Chen KW, Berger CC, Manheimer E, Forde D, Magidson J, Dachman L, et al. Meditative therapies for reducing anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Depress Anxiety. 2012 Jul;29(7):545–62.
    • Cheung AS, Zajac JD, Grossmann M. Muscle and bone effects of androgen deprivation therapy: current and emerging therapies. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014 Sep 17;21(5):R371–94.
    • Chipperfield K, Brooker J, Fletcher J, Burney S. The impact of physical activity on psychosocial outcomes in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: A systematic review. Health Psychol. 2014;33(11):1288–97.
    • Cormie P, Galvão DA, Spry N, Joseph D, Chee R, Taaffe DR, et al. Can supervised exercise prevent treatment toxicity in patients with prostate cancer initiating androgen-deprivation therapy: a randomised controlled trial. BJU Int. 2015;115(2):256–66.
    • Cormie P, Newton RU, Taaffe DR, Spry N, Joseph D, Hamid MA, et al. Exercise maintains sexual activity in men undergoing androgen suppression for prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013;16(2):170–175.
    • Cramp F, Byron-Daniel J, Byron-Daniel J. Exercise for the management of cancer-related fatigue in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2012 Nov 14; Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD006145.pub3
    • Davies NJ, Batehup L, Thomas R. The role of diet and physical activity in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivorship: a review of the literature. Br J Cancer. 2011 Nov 8;105:S52–73.
    • De Laet C, Kanis JA, Odén A, Johanson H, Johnell O, Delmas P, et al. Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: A meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Nov;16(11):1330–8.
    • Discacciati A, Orsini N, Wolk A. Body mass index and incidence of localized and advanced prostate cancer--a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Ann Oncol. 2012 Jan 6;23(7):1665–71.
    • Dolara P, Bigagli E, Collins A. Antioxidant vitamins and mineral supplementation, life span expansion and cancer incidence: a critical commentary. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Oct;51(7):769–81.
    • Downer MK, Batista JL, Mucci LA, Stampfer MJ, Epstein MM, Håkansson N, et al. Dairy intake in relation to prostate cancer survival. Int J Cancer. 2017 May 1;140(9):2060–9.
    • Eastham JA. Bone health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol. 2007 Jan;177(1):17–24.
    • Ebeling PR. Osteoporosis in men. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1474–82.
    • Elliott S, Latini DM, Walker LM, Wassersug R, Robinson JW. Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Recommendations to Improve Patient and Partner Quality of Life: Improving Life on ADT. J Sex Med. 2010 Sep;7(9):2996–3010.
    • European Food Safety Authority Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for water. EFSA J. 2010;8(3).
    • Foerster B, Pozo C, Abufaraj M, Mari A, Kimura S, D’Andrea D, et al. Association of Smoking Status With Recurrence, Metastasis, and Mortality Among Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Prostatectomy or Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Oncol [Internet]. 2018 May 24 [cited 2018 May 29]; Available from: http://oncology.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.1071
    • Galvão DA, Taaffe DR, Spry N, Joseph D, Newton RU. Cardiovascular and metabolic complications during androgen deprivation: exercise as a potential countermeasure. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2009;12(3):233–240.
    • Galvão DA, Taaffe DR, Spry N, Joseph D, Newton RU. Combined Resistance and Aerobic Exercise Program Reverses Muscle Loss in Men Undergoing Androgen Suppression Therapy for Prostate Cancer Without Bone Metastases: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jan 10;28(2):340–7.
    • Gardner JR, Livingston PM, Fraser SF. Effects of Exercise on Treatment-Related Adverse Effects for Patients With Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen-Deprivation Therapy: A Systematic Review. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Feb 1;32(4):335–46.
    • Gathirua-Mwangi WG, Zhang J. Dietary factors and risk for advanced prostate cancer: Eur J Cancer Prev. 2014 Mar;23(2):96–109.
    • Gerdtsson A, Poon JB, Thorek DL, Mucci LA, Evans MJ, Scardino P, et al. Anthropometric Measures at Multiple Times Throughout Life and Prostate Cancer Diagnosis, Metastasis, and Death. Eur Urol. 2015 Dec;68(6):1076–82.
    • Goyal M, Singh S, Sibinga EMS, Gould NF, Rowland-Seymour A, Sharma R, et al. Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar;174(3):357–68.
    • Grossmann M, Hamilton EJ, Gilfillan C, Bolton D, Joon DL, Zajac JD. Bone and metabolic health in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer who are receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Med J Aust. 2011;194(6):301–306.
    • Hackshaw-McGeagh LE, Perry RE, Leach VA, Qandil S, Jeffreys M, Martin RM, et al. A systematic review of dietary, nutritional, and physical activity interventions for the prevention of prostate cancer progression and mortality. Cancer Causes Control. 2015 Nov;26(11):1521–50.
    • Hamilton K, Chambers SK, Legg M, Oliffe JL, Cormie P. Sexuality and exercise in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2015 Jan;23(1):133–42.
    • Hannan JL, Maio MT, Komolova M, Adams MA. Beneficial Impact of Exercise and Obesity Interventions on Erectile Function and Its Risk Factors. J Sex Med. 2009 Mar;6(S3):254–61.
    • Haseen F, Murray LJ, Cardwell CR, O’Sullivan JM, Cantwell MM. The effect of androgen deprivation therapy on body composition in men with prostate cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cancer Surviv. 2010 Jun 1;4(2):128–39.
    • Hechtman LM. Clinical Naturopathic Medicine [Internet]. Harcourt Publishers Group (Australia); 2014 [cited 2015 Jul 21]. 1610 p. Available from: http://www.bookdepository.com/Clinical-Naturopathic-Medicine-Leah-Hechtman/9780729541923
    • Henson CC, Burden S, Davidson SE, Lal S, Lal S. Nutritional interventions for reducing gastrointestinal toxicity in adults undergoing radical pelvic radiotherapy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2014 Nov 18];(11). Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD009896.pub2
    • Ho T, Gerber L, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, Presti JC, Kane CJ, et al. Obesity, Prostate-Specific Antigen Nadir, and Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy: Biology or Technique? Results from the SEARCH Database. Eur Urol. 2012 Nov;62(5):910–6.
    • Hori S, Butler E, McLoughlin J. Prostate cancer and diet: food for thought? BJU Int. 2011;107(9):1348–1359.
    • Hu M-B, Xu H, Bai P-D, Jiang H-W, Ding Q. Obesity has multifaceted impact on biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of 36,927 patients. Med Oncol Northwood Lond Engl. 2014 Feb;31(2):829.
    • Huncharek M, Haddock KS, Reid R, Kupelnick B. Smoking as a risk factor for prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 24 prospective cohort studies. J Inf. 2010;100(4).
    • Ilic D, Misso M. Lycopene for the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: A systematic review. Maturitas. 2012 Aug;72(4):269–76.
    • Islami F, Moreira DM, Boffetta P, Freedland SJ. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Tobacco Use and Prostate Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Prospective Cohort Studies. Eur Urol. 2014 Dec;66(6):1054–64.
    • Iversen P, Karup C, Van der Meulen E, Tanko LB, Huhtaniemi I. Hot flushes in prostatic cancer patients during androgen-deprivation therapy with monthly dose of degarelix or leuprolide. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2011;14(2):184–190.
    • Jacob SA, Khan TM, Lee L-H. The Effect of Green Tea Consumption on Prostate Cancer Risk and Progression: A Systematic Review. Nutr Cancer. 2017 Apr 3;69(3):353–64.
    • Jiang L, Yang K, Tian J, Guan Q, Yao N, Cao N, et al. Efficacy of Antioxidant Vitamins and Selenium Supplement in Prostate Cancer Prevention: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutr Cancer. 2010 Jul 23;62(6):719–27.
    • Kaplan M, Mahon S. Hot Flash Management: Update of the Evidence for Patients With Cancer. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2014 Dec 1;18(s6):59–67.
    • Keilani M, Hasenoehrl T, Baumann L, Ristl R, Schwarz M, Marhold M, et al. Effects of resistance exercise in prostate cancer patients: a meta-analysis. Support Care Cancer. 2017 Jun 10;
    • Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Chan JM, Giovannucci E. Smoking and prostate cancer survival and recurrence. JAMA. 2011;305(24):2548.
    • Keogh JWL, MacLeod RD. Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Functional Performance, Quality of Life, and Fatigue Benefits of Exercise for Prostate Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012 Jan;43(1):96–110.
    • Keto CJ, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, Presti JC, Kane CJ, Amling CL, et al. Obesity is associated with castration-resistant disease and metastasis in men treated with androgen deprivation therapy after radical prostatectomy: results from the SEARCH database. BJU Int. 2011;110(4):492–8.
    • Larkin D, Lopez V, Aromataris E. Managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer: A systematic review of non-pharmacological interventions: Managing prostate cancer fatigue. Int J Nurs Pract. 2014 Oct;20(5):549–60.
    • Lazarevic B, Boezelijn G, Diep LM, Kvernrod K, Ogren O, Ramberg H, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Short-Term Genistein Intervention in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer Prior to Radical Prostatectomy: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Phase 2 Clinical Trial. Nutr Cancer. 2011 Aug;63(6):889–98.
    • Lin P-H, Aronson W, Freedland SJ. Nutrition, dietary interventions and prostate cancer: the latest evidence. BMC Med [Internet]. 2015 Dec [cited 2017 Oct 30];13(1). Available from: http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-014-0234-y
    • Liu B, Mao Q, Cao M, Xie L. Cruciferous vegetables intake and risk of prostate cancer: A meta-analysis: Cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer. Int J Urol. 2012 Feb;19(2):134–41.
    • Lu W, Chen H, Niu Y, Wu H, Xia D, Wu Y. Dairy products intake and cancer mortality risk: a meta-analysis of 11 population-based cohort studies. Nutr J [Internet]. 2016 Dec [cited 2017 Oct 30];15(1). Available from: http://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-016-0210-9
    • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Black cohosh: UK Public Assessment Report.
    • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Herbal medicines: Advice for consumers [Internet]. [cited 2015 Jan 7]. Available from: http://www.mhra.gov.uk/Safetyinformation/Generalsafetyinformationandadvice/Herbalmedicines/Usingherbalmedicinessafely/index.htm
    • Meldrum DR, Gambone JC, Morris MA, Esposito K, Giugliano D, Ignarro LJ. Lifestyle and metabolic approaches to maximizing erectile and vascular health. Int J Impot Res. 2012 Apr;24(2):61–8.
    • Meldrum DR, Gambone JC, Morris MA, Ignarro LJ. A multifaceted approach to maximize erectile function and vascular health. Fertil Steril. 2010 Dec;94(7):2514–20.
    • Menichetti J, Villa S, Magnani T, Avuzzi B, Bosetti D, Marenghi C, et al. Lifestyle interventions to improve the quality of life of men with prostate cancer: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016 Dec;108:13–22.
    • Mishra SI, Scherer RW, Geigle PM, Berlanstein DR, Topaloglu O, Gotay CC, et al. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;8:CD007566.
    • Mohamad H, McNeill G, Haseen F, N’Dow J, Craig LCA, Heys SD. The Effect of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Body Weight in Prostate Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review. Nutr Cancer. 2015 Jan 2;67(1):43–60.
    • Moreira DM, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, Kane CJ, Amling CL, Cooperberg MR, et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of biochemical disease recurrence, metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer, and mortality after radical prostatectomy: Results from the SEARCH database. Cancer. 2014 Jan 15;120(2):197–204.
    • Morrow PKH, Mattair DN, Hortobagyi GN. Hot Flashes: A Review of Pathophysiology and Treatment Modalities. The Oncologist. 2011 Nov 1;16(11):1658–64.
    • Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Briers E, Bolla M, Bourke L, Cornford P, et al. EAU-ESTRO-ESUR-SIOG Guidelines on prostate cancer. European Association of Urology; 2017.
    • Murphy R, Wassersug R, Dechman G. The role of exercise in managing the adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer. Phys Ther Rev. 2011 Aug 1;16(4):269–77.
    • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Maintaining a healthy weight and preventing excess weight gain among adults and children. NICE guideline 7. 2015.
    • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate Cancer: diagnosis and treatment. Full guideline 175. 2014.
    • Newby TA, Graff JN, Ganzini LK, McDonagh MS. Interventions that may reduce depressive symptoms among prostate cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis: Reduction of depressive symptoms among prostate cancer patients. Psychooncology. 2015 Dec;24(12):1686–93.
    • NHS Choices. 5 A Day portion sizes [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Jul 5]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/5ADAY/Pages/Portionsizes.aspx
    • NHS Choices. How to have a balanced diet [Internet]. [cited 2015 Aug 24]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/Healthyeating.aspx
    • NHS Choices. Sitting exercises [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2017 Jul 19]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/fitness/Pages/sitting-exercises-for-older-people.aspx
    • NHS Choices. The 10,000 steps challenge [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2015 Jan 8]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/loseweight/Pages/10000stepschallenge.aspx
    • NHS Choices. The Eatwell Guide [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2017 Jul 5]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/the-eatwell-guide.aspx
    • NHS Choices. The risks of drinking too much [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Jul 4]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/alcohol/Pages/Effectsofalcohol.aspx
    • NHS Choices. Vitamins and minerals - Calcium [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2015 Jan 8]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/vitamins-minerals/Pages/Calcium.aspx
    • NHS Choices. Vitamins and minerals [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 May 11]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vitamins-minerals/Pages/vitamins-minerals.aspx
    • NHS Choices. Why is my waist size important? [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2017 Jul 4]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/849.aspx?CategoryID=51
    • Oefelein MG, Ricchuiti V, Conrad W, Seftel A, Bodner D, Goldman H, et al. Skeletal fracture associated with androgen suppression induced osteoporosis: the clinical incidence and risk factors for patients with prostate cancer. J Urol. 2001;166(5):1724–1728.
    • Paller CJ, Pantuck A, Carducci MA. A review of pomegranate in prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis [Internet]. 2017 Apr 25 [cited 2017 Jul 7]; Available from: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/pcan.2017.19
    • Paller CJ, Ye X, Wozniak PJ, Gillespie BK, Sieber PR, Greengold RH, et al. A randomized phase II study of pomegranate extract for men with rising PSA following initial therapy for localized prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2012 Jun 12;16(1):50–5.
    • Pantuck AJ, Pettaway CA, Dreicer R, Corman J, Katz A, Ho A, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of pomegranate extract on rising PSA levels in men following primary therapy for prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2015;18(3):242.
    • Peisch SF, Van Blarigan EL, Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Kenfield SA. Prostate cancer progression and mortality: a review of diet and lifestyle factors. World J Urol. 2017 Jun;35(6):867–74.
    • Pelser C, Mondul AM, Hollenbeck AR, Park Y. Dietary fat, fatty acids, and risk of prostate cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22(4):697–707.
    • Pettersson A, Johansson B, Persson C, Berglund A, Turesson I. Effects of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life: A randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol. 2012 Jun;103(3):333–40.
    • Philippou Y, Hadjipavlou M, Khan S, Rane A. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in prostate and bladder cancer. BJU Int. 2013 Dec;112(8):1073–9.
    • Planas J, Morote J, Orsola A, Salvador C, Trilla E, Cecchini L, et al. The relationship between daily calcium intake and bone mineral density in men with prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2007 Apr;99(4):812–6.
    • Public Health England. The Public Health Burden of Alcohol and the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Alcohol Control Policies. An evidence review. 2016.
    • Rackley JD, Clark PE, Hall MC. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Advanced Prostate Cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 2006 May;33(2):237–46.
    • Richman EL, Carroll PR, Chan JM. Vegetable and fruit intake after diagnosis and risk of prostate cancer progression. Int J Cancer. 2012 Jul 1;131(1):201–10.
    • Richman EL, Kenfield SA, Chavarro JE, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Willett WC, et al. Fat Intake After Diagnosis and Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer and All-Cause Mortality. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jul 22;173(14):1318.
    • Richman EL, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Paciorek A, Carroll PR, Chan JM. Physical Activity after Diagnosis and Risk of Prostate Cancer Progression: Data from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor. Cancer Res. 2011 May 24;71(11):3889–95.
    • Rohrmann S, Linseisen J, Allen N, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Johnsen NF, Tjønneland A, et al. Smoking and the risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Br J Cancer. 2013;108(3):708–14.
    • Rota M, Scotti L, Turati F, Tramacere I, Islami F, Bellocco R, et al. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of the dose–risk relation. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2012 Jul;21(4):350–9.
    • Rowles JL, Ranard KM, Smith JW, An R, Erdman JW. Increased dietary and circulating lycopene are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis [Internet]. 2017 Apr 25 [cited 2017 Apr 27]; Available from: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/pcan.2017.25
    • Ryan CW, Huo D, Stallings JW, Davis RL, Beer TM, McWhorter LT. Lifestyle Factors and Duration of Androgen Deprivation Affect Bone Mineral Density of Patients with Prostate Cancer During First Year of Therapy. Urology. 2007 Jul;70(1):122–6.
    • Saylor PJ, Smith MR. Metabolic Complications of Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer. J Urol. 2013 Jan;189(1):S34–44.
    • Schmitz KH, Courneya KS, Matthews C, Demark-Wahnefried W, Galvão DA, Pinto BM, et al. American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on Exercise Guidelines for Cancer Survivors: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jul;42(7):1409–26.
    • Shore ND, Abrahamsson P-A, Anderson J, Crawford ED, Lange P. New considerations for ADT in advanced prostate cancer and the emerging role of GnRH antagonists. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013;16(1):7–15.
    • Solanki AA, Liauw SL. Tobacco use and external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer: Influence on biochemical control and late toxicity. Cancer. 2013;n/a–n/a.
    • Steinberger E, Kollmeier M, McBride S, Novak C, Pei X, Zelefsky MJ. Cigarette smoking during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality and treatment-related toxicity. BJU Int. 2015 Oct;116(4):596–603.
    • Stene GB, Helbostad JL, Balstad TR, Riphagen II, Kaasa S, Oldervoll LM. Effect of physical exercise on muscle mass and strength in cancer patients during treatment—A systematic review. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2013 Dec;88(3):573–93.
    • Stenner-Liewen F, Liewen H, Cathomas R, Renner C, Petrausch U, Sulser T, et al. Daily Pomegranate Intake Has No Impact on PSA Levels in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer - Results of a Phase IIb Randomized Controlled Trial. J Cancer. 2013;4(7):597–605.
    • Storey DJ, McLaren DB, Atkinson MA, Butcher I, Frew LC, Smyth JF, et al. Clinically relevant fatigue in men with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer on long-term androgen deprivation therapy. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(6):1542–9.
    • Stratton J, Godwin M. The effect of supplemental vitamins and minerals on the development of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fam Pract. 2011 Jan 27;28(3):243–52.
    • Strom SS, Yamamura Y, Forman MR, Pettaway CA, Barrera SL, DiGiovanni J. Saturated fat intake predicts biochemical failure after prostatectomy. Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 1;122(11):2581–5.
    • Teleni L, Chan RJ, Chan A, Isenring EA, Vela I, Inder WJ, et al. Exercise improves quality of life in androgen deprivation therapy-treated prostate cancer: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016 Feb 1;23(2):101–12.
    • The Christie NHS Foundation Trust. Be active, stay active: A guide for exercising during and after treatment for cancer. 2014.
    • Thorsen L, Courneya KS, Stevinson C, Fosså SD. A systematic review of physical activity in prostate cancer survivors: outcomes, prevalence, and determinants. Support Care Cancer. 2008 Feb 15;16(9):987–97.
    • Tillisch K. Complementary and alternative medicine for functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gut. 2006 May 1;55(5):593–6.
    • Tombal B. A Holistic Approach to Androgen Deprivation Therapy: Treating the Cancer without Hurting the Patient. Urol Int. 2009;83(4):373–8.
    • Trottier G, Boström PJ, Lawrentschuk N, Fleshner NE. Nutraceuticals and prostate cancer prevention: a current review. Nat Rev Urol. 2009 Dec 8;7(1):21–30.
    • Vaishampayan U, Hussain M, Banerjee M, Seren S, Sarkar FH, Fontana J, et al. Lycopene and soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2007;59(1):1–7.
    • Van Blarigan EL, Kenfield SA, Yang M, Sesso HD, Ma J, Stampfer MJ, et al. Fat intake after prostate cancer diagnosis and mortality in the Physicians’ Health Study. Cancer Causes Control. 2015 Aug;26(8):1117–26.
    • van Die MD, Bone KM, Emery J, Williams SG, Pirotta MV, Paller CJ. Phytotherapeutic interventions in the management of biochemically recurrent prostate cancer: a systematic review of randomised trials. BJU Int. 2016 Feb 22;
    • Van Patten CL, de Boer JG, Tomlinson Guns ES. Diet and Dietary Supplement Intervention Trials for the Prevention of Prostate Cancer Recurrence: A Review of the Randomized Controlled Trial Evidence. J Urol. 2008 Dec;180(6):2314–22.
    • von Loew EC, Perabo FG, Siener R, MÜLLER SC. Facts and fiction of phytotherapy for prostate cancer: a critical assessment of preclinical and clinical data. In Vivo. 2007;21(2):189–204.
    • Wang L, Martins-Green M. Pomegranate and Its Components as Alternative Treatment for Prostate Cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 Aug 25;15(9):14949–66.
    • Wang LS, Murphy CT, Ruth K, Zaorsky NG, Smaldone MC, Sobczak ML, et al. Impact of obesity on outcomes after definitive dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Cancer. 2015 Sep 1;121(17):3010–7.
    • Wang Y, Cui R, Xiao Y, Fang J, Xu Q. Effect of carotene and lycopene on the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. PloS One. 2015;10(9):e0137427.
    • Wang Y, Jacobs EJ, Newton CC, McCullough ML. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort: Lycopene, Tomato Products and Prostate Cancer Survival. Int J Cancer. 2016 Jun 15;138(12):2846–55.
    • Wassersug RJ. Maintaining intimacy for prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy: Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2016 Mar;10(1):55–65.
    • Wedlake LJ, Shaw C, Whelan K, Andreyev HJN. Systematic review: the efficacy of nutritional interventions to counteract acute gastrointestinal toxicity during therapeutic pelvic radiotherapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jun;37(11):1046–56.
    • White ID, Wilson J, Aslet P, Baxter AB, Birtle A, Challacombe B, et al. Development of UK guidance on the management of erectile dysfunction resulting from radical radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Int J Clin Pract. 2015 Jan;69(1):106–23.
    • Wild T, Rahbarnia A, Kellner M, Sobotka L, Eberlein T. Basics in nutrition and wound healing. Nutrition. 2010 Sep;26(9):862–6.
    • Wilson KM, Shui IM, Mucci LA, Giovannucci E. Calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk: a 24-y follow-up study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jan;101(1):173–83.
    • Winters-Stone KM, Dobek JC, Bennett JA, Dieckmann NF, Maddalozzo GF, Ryan CW, et al. Resistance Training Reduces Disability in Prostate Cancer Survivors on Androgen Deprivation Therapy: Evidence From a Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015 Jan;96(1):7–14.
    • Winters-Stone KM, Dobek JC, Bennett JA, Maddalozzo GF, Ryan CW, Beer TM. Skeletal Response to Resistance and Impact Training in Prostate Cancer Survivors: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014 Aug;46(8):1482–8.
    • Wolin KY, Luly J, Sutcliffe S, Andriole GL, Kibel AS. Risk of Urinary Incontinence Following Prostatectomy: The Role of Physical Activity and Obesity. J Urol. 2010 Feb;183(2):629–33.
    • World Cancer Research Fund International. Continuous Update Project report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Prostate Cancer [Internet]. 2014. Available from: www.wcrf.org/sites/default/files/Prostate-Cancer-2014-Report.pdf
    • World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington, DC: WCRF/AICR; 2007.
    • World Cancer Research Fund. Cancer Prevention & Survival: Summary of global evidence on diet, weight, physical activity and what increases or decreases your risk of cancer. [Internet]. 2016. Available from: http://www.wcrf.org/sites/default/files/CUP-Summary-Report.pdf
    • World Cancer Research Fund. Continuous Update Project Expert Report 2018. Meat, fish and dairy products and the risk of cancer. World Cancer Research Fund /Americal Institute for Cancer Research; 2018 p. 80. (Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Cancer: a Global Perspective.).
    • World Health Organisation. Mortality attributable to tobacco [Internet]. WHO; 2012. Available from: http://www.who.int/tobacco/publications/surveillance/fact_sheet_mortality_report.pdf?ua=1
    • World Health Organization (Bazzano LA). Dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. 2005.
    • World Health Organization (Tohill BC). Dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and management of body weight. 2005.
    • World Health Organization. Physical activity [Internet]. [cited 2015 Feb 5]. Available from: http://www.who.int/topics/physical_activity/en/
    • Wu K, Spiegelman D, Hou T, Albanes D, Allen NE, Berndt SI, et al. Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer: A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies: Meat, seafood, eggs and prostate cancer. Int J Cancer. 2016 May 15;138(10):2368–82.
    • Xu C, Han F-F, Zeng X-T, Liu T-Z, Li S, Gao Z-Y. Fat Intake Is Not Linked to Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis. Schooling CM, editor. PLOS ONE. 2015 Jul 17;10(7):e0131747.
    • Zhao J, Stockwell T, Roemer A, Chikritzhs T. Is alcohol consumption a risk factor for prostate cancer? A systematic review and meta–analysis. BMC Cancer [Internet]. 2016 Dec [cited 2017 Jan 20];16(1). Available from: http://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12885-016-2891-z
    • Zhao J, Zhu S, Sun L, Meng F, Zhao L, Zhao Y, et al. Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Is Associated with Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Observational Studies. Kyprianou N, editor. PLoS ONE. 2014 Sep 29;9(9):e107516.
    • Zu K, Giovannucci E. Smoking and aggressive prostate cancer: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Jun 27;20(10):1799–810.