This page is for gay and bisexual men, and other men who have sex with men, who are having tests or treatment for prostate cancer. Partners and families may also find it useful.

Other information and support that you may find helpful includes:

Download or order booklet

Prostate cancer in gay and bisexual men

Prostate cancer isn’t more common in gay or bisexual men, or in men who have anal sex, and it’s treated in the same way. But if you’re gay, bisexual or a man who has sex with men, you might have some specific questions or concerns. We’ve included information that may be relevant to you, and about the support available.

If you’re a gay or bisexual trans man (registered female at birth and identify as a man) you will not have a prostate so you are not at risk of getting prostate cancer. But you may have a partner who has, or is at risk of getting, prostate cancer.

This information has been developed based on guidance and evidence in cisgender men. If you are a trans woman, non-binary registered male at birth or intersex, some of this information may still be relevant to you – but your experience may be slightly different. For more information visit our information for trans women.

For more general information about prostate cancer, you can read our information on signs and symptoms or things that can increase your risk of prostate cancer.

Testing for prostate cancer

Tests for diagnosing prostate cancer are the same for everyone. But this page has information on things to be aware of if you are the receptive partner in anal sex or have your prostate stimulated.

The PSA blood test

This is a blood test that measures the amount of a protein called prostate specific antigen (PSA) in your blood. A raised PSA level may suggest you have a problem with your prostate, but not necessarily cancer.

Lots of things can affect your PSA level, including being the receptive partner in anal sex, having your prostate stimulated or vigorous exercise. Try to avoid these for a week before having a PSA test.

Find out more about the PSA test, including what to do if you have trouble getting one.

Digital rectal examination (DRE)

This is where your GP feels your prostate through the wall of your back passage (rectum). If your prostate is hard or lumpy, this could be a sign of prostate cancer. Read more about having a DRE.

MRI scan

If your GP thinks you may have a problem with your prostate, they will refer you to a hospital specialist for more tests, such as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. This can show whether there is anything unusual in the prostate, or the area around it, that might be cancer.

Prostate biopsy

This involves using thin needles to take small pieces of tissue from the prostate. Depending on the type of biopsy you have, the needle will either go through the wall of the back passage, or through the skin between your testicles and back passage (perineum). The tissue is then looked at under a microscope to check for cancer.

It’s normal to see some blood in your urine or bowel movements for about two weeks after having a biopsy. This will be different for everyone and may vary from a small amount to a much larger amount. You may also notice blood in your semen for a couple of months – it might look red or dark brown. This can be a shock and some men find it distressing, but it’s normal and should get better by itself.

You can still masturbate and have sex if you’re the penetrative partner in anal sex, but you might prefer to use a condom until the bleeding stops. If it takes longer than a couple of months to clear up, or gets worse, you should see your doctor.

If you’re the receptive partner in anal sex, wait about two weeks until any side effects from your biopsy have settled before having anal sex. Talk to your doctor or nurse if you need any further advice.

Read more about having a prostate biopsy, including the possible side effects.

Treatments for prostate cancer

There are several ways to treat or monitor prostate cancer. Some treatments aim to get rid of the cancer completely and others aim to control it. We have information on the different treatments for prostate cancer and choosing a treatment.

Before choosing a treatment, you may find it helpful to get some extra information or support from our Specialist Nurses. You could also talk to your partner, family or friends.

It might also help to contact a prostate cancer support group. There are some support groups specifically for gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer where you can discuss treatments and side effects and the impact they might have on you. 

Or you could visit our online community, which has a section for gay and bisexual men, and men who have sex with men.

Side effects of prostate cancer treatment

All treatments have side effects, and some of these may be particularly relevant to you as a gay or bisexual man. Depending on the treatment you have, side effects can include:

  • sexual side effects
  • urinary problems, such as leaking urine
  • bowel problems
  • tiredness

We have some specific information on these side effects below, as well as more general information about ways to manage them on our living with prostate cancer pages.

You’ll have your own reasons for choosing one treatment over another, including how the possible side effects could affect your lifestyle. For example, if you’re usually the receptive partner in anal sex and you’re thinking about having radiotherapy, you might want to find out about how radiotherapy can affect the bowel and the back passage.

Speak to your doctor or nurse about your treatment options and the possible side effects. Consider telling them about your sexuality and lifestyle so they know how treatment and side effects could affect you. This might also help them to support you better. Read more about talking to health professionals about your sexuality.

Sexual side effects

Treatments for prostate cancer can cause sexual side effects. These include:

  • how you feel about yourself sexually
  • your desire to have sex (libido)
  • your ability to get an erection (erectile function)
  • not being able to ejaculate
  • changes to how orgasms feel
  • urinating or leaking urine when you orgasm (climacturia)
  • reduction in penis size
  • your sexual satisfaction
  • your ability to have children (fertility).

We talk about some of these side effects below, as well as in our information on sex and relationships. You can also check out our online guide on how to manage sexual side effects.

How sexual side effects affect you could depend on your approach to sex, sensuality and intimacy. Not all gay and bisexual men have anal sex – but if you do, then the impact of side effects will depend on whether you’re giving or receiving anal sex.

I now think about sex in a completely different way – I try to approach relationships from a friendship point of view first. I’m more sensual and in many ways I find it more relaxing.
A personal experience

Your experience of sex

Dealing with cancer and side effects of treatment may change the way you have or think about sex. It may also affect how you feel about yourself. Many men find changes to their sex life difficult to deal with. We know from research that gay and bisexual men can find these changes particularly difficult to come to terms with.

When you're being the receptive partner in anal sex, a lot of the pleasure comes from the penis rubbing against the prostate. This is why the prostate is often referred to as the male g-spot. If you prefer to be the receptive partner during anal sex, your experience of sex will probably change after you’ve had treatment.

If you have radiotherapy, your prostate may feel less sensitive afterwards. Or if you have surgery to remove your prostate (radical prostatectomy), the prostate will no longer be there to stimulate. You should think about these possible changes when deciding which treatment is best for you. If you have a radical prostatectomy, your doctor may suggest waiting six weeks before having sex after the operation.

If you're the receptive partner in anal sex and you’ve had permanent seed brachytherapy to treat your prostate cancer, there is a risk that your partner might be exposed to some radiation during sex. Your doctor may suggest you avoid having anal sex in the first six months after having permanent seed brachytherapy. If you are the penetrative partner, it is safe to have anal sex, but you may have to wear a condom for the first four to eight weeks after having permanent seed brachytherapy. Ask your doctor or radiographer for more information about having anal sex after permanent seed brachytherapy. They might be able to give you specific advice about how long to wait before having sex, which is tailored to you and your treatment plan.

Even though your sex life may not be the same as it was before cancer, you don't have to give up on having pleasure, closeness or fun. It can help to be realistic but flexible in your approach to sex. It may not be possible to find a quick fix, but you may be able to explore new ways of giving and receiving pleasure.

It’s also important to look after yourself and your body. Try to focus on the things you like about yourself. Do activities or hobbies you are good at or try something new. Being physically active can lift your mood, keep your body in shape and may help your sex life.

If you have a new sexual partner or you’re starting to think about dating, you may worry about explaining sexual problems, such as difficulty getting erections, not being able to ejaculate semen or less desire for sex. Fear of rejection or being worried about what other people think about you is normal and everyone has their own worries, whether or not they’ve had cancer.

Talk about your worries with someone you feel comfortable with and ask for support if you need it. Some men find it helpful to attend a support group, where you can share your experiences and get support from others. A charity called Look Good Feel Better also run free skincare and grooming workshops for people with cancer to attend – this may help you feel more confident.

If you’d prefer to talk to someone you don’t know, you could get information and support at a sexual health clinic. They know a lot about sexual issues, and may have ideas that can help. You can also talk to a sex therapist or registered counsellor about sexual problems. Your GP can tell you if these services are available in your local area, or you can find more information on the British Association for Counselling & Psychotherapy website.

Our own Specialist Nurses run a sexual support service, which is a chance for you, or your partner, to talk to a nurse who has an interest in helping with sexual problems after treatment for prostate cancer.

Find out more about prostate cancer, sex and relationships.

Watch Martin’s story below for one gay man’s experience of dealing with the impact of prostate cancer on sex and relationships.

My husband and I ended up enjoying all sorts of things we never did before my prostate surgery. I used to almost always be the active partner during sex, but now he’s more dominant and it’s been lovely.
A personal experience

Erection problems

If you prefer being the penetrative partner during anal sex you normally need a strong erection. You could try using a constriction ring around the base of your penis. Or some men use a vacuum pump to help with their erection problems. If you decide to try a vacuum pump, a health professional will usually show you how to use it properly. They will fit a constriction ring at the same time, to make sure the ring is the right size for you. Our online guide has a video showing you how to use a pump.

A vacuum pump and constriction ring can be used together with another treatment like tablets, to help keep your erection hard enough for anal sex. There are also other treatments for erection problems, such as injections, pellets and cream. There’s not always a quick fix. You often have to stick with them for a while or try different treatments to see what works best for you.

Tablets used to treat erection problems, known as PDE5 inhibitors, should not be taken if you’re also taking a drug called nitrates. Nitrates are usually used to treat heart problems. They are also used in recreational drugs known as poppers. If you have a heart problem or take nitrates, ask your doctor or specialist about other ways to treat erection problems.

Watch our videos by Lorraine Grover, Psychosexual Nurse Specialist, for more information about how different treatments work for erection problems. 

You could also think about other ways to pleasure yourself and your partner, such as oral sex and masturbation. You don’t always need a strong erection for oral sex. Some men may also decide to change their roles during sex if they have erection problems. Talking to a sex therapist or registered counsellor may help you come to terms with these changes and think of ways you can have a fulfilling sex life.

Changes to ejaculation and orgasm

If you have surgery for prostate cancer (radical prostatectomy), you won’t be able to ejaculate semen, but you may still be able to have a dry orgasm - where you have the sensation of orgasm but don't ejaculate. Some men also ejaculate less semen or stop ejaculating completely after radiotherapy. This can be difficult to come to terms with if you feel you need to ejaculate to enjoy sex, or for your partner to think that you’re enjoying sex. It can take some time to adjust to these changes. 

Urinary problems

Treatments for prostate cancer can cause urinary problems such as leaking urine. For many men this improves over time, but it can be a long-term problem. Urinary problems may affect how you feel about your body and about sex, and can make you worry about having oral sex and masturbating.

If you get any urinary problems, tell your doctor, nurse or radiographer. There are treatments to manage them, as well as things you can do to help yourself. Read more about urinary side effects after prostate cancer treatment, or find tips to help manage urinary problems in our interactive online guide.

Bowel problems and anal sensitivity

If you prefer to be the receptive partner during anal sex, then bowel problems or sensitivity in the anus after radiotherapy may be an issue.

Your doctor, nurse or radiographer may suggest you avoid having anal sex while you are having radiotherapy. If you have bowel problems or a sensitive anus after radiotherapy, your doctor may suggest not receiving anal sex for two months afterwards. Although problems in the back passage may settle down after a few months, there can be some permanent changes.

Here are a few ideas for when you feel ready to try anal sex again.

  • You could try sitting on your partner and moving up and down on his penis so that you have more control of the penetration, and then moving positions if you want to.
  • Try using a condom and extra lubrication.
  • Or ask your partner to gently insert a small, well-lubricated dildo until anal sex becomes more comfortable.

Cleaning yourself before sex can also make you feel more comfortable. Some men prefer to just clean the outside area, rather than cleaning inside. Remember that douching before or after sex doesn’t protect you from infections.

Read more about possible bowel problems after prostate cancer treatment.

HIV and prostate cancer

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) doesn’t only affect gay and bisexual men, but gay and bisexual men are more likely to be affected by HIV than heterosexual men. Current guidelines say that prostate cancer is not more common in men who have HIV. But some other cancers are more common in people living with HIV.

Studies suggest that treatments for prostate cancer, such as surgery and radiotherapy, do work for men who have HIV. But if you have HIV and are diagnosed with prostate cancer, it’s important to discuss your treatment options with a health professional who specialises in HIV and cancer. It’s important to tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, including over-the-counter and herbal remedies.

If you need tablets to help with erection problems, you may be offered a smaller dose if you’re already taking medication for HIV (antiretroviral drugs). This is because HIV drugs can react with some other medicines, which can cause side effects that may be serious. Some medication for HIV can cause bone thinning (osteoporosis). It's important that you tell your doctor or nurse if you're taking medication for HIV.

If you’ve had a biopsy or surgery for your prostate cancer, you may experience some bleeding afterwards. If you choose to have sex while you are bleeding, it’s important to use a condom. Some bleeding after treatment is normal and should get better by itself. But if it doesn’t get better, or it gets worse, you should talk to your doctor straight away. 

Talking about your sexuality

Some men find that their doctor, nurse or radiographer assumes they are heterosexual. All hospitals should ask patients about their sexuality. This helps health professionals to give care and support that is right for each person. Information you give will be recorded confidentially and will stay private. But it’s your choice whether or not you decide to tell them.

You may feel anxious about how to raise the subject or how your doctor or nurse will react if you tell them you’re gay or bisexual. Some men might worry that they will be judged or treated differently because of their sexuality, and we know that some men have had bad experiences in the past. If this has happened to you, you may find it more difficult to be open about your sexuality with your doctor or nurse.

But remember that as a gay or bisexual man you’re entitled to exactly the same standard of care and treatment as a heterosexual man. This means it’s illegal to discriminate against you because of your sexuality. But most health professionals will have had equality and diversity training, and they have a legal duty to provide fair and equal services to all people.

If you’re worried about telling your doctor or nurse about your sexuality, try planning exactly what you’ll say and when you’ll say it. You might find it helpful to take your partner or a friend with you for support. It might be easier to talk about it at the start of your appointment, so that you aren’t worrying about it during the appointment. You might also find it helpful to take this booklet with you to your appointments. 

If you feel these rights aren’t being respected, you can complain. You can contact the Patient Advice and Liaison Service (PALS) at your local NHS hospital for confidential advice about how to complain. Talk to a health professional about how to contact them or visit the NHS choices website. Or you can contact your local Citizens Advice or visit their website for information about how to complain. You can also get information and support from Stonewall – a charity that provides information about gay rights.

Don’t be embarrassed or afraid to ask the questions that you really want to ask your doctor – nothing is a silly question and the doctors have heard it all before.
A personal experience

Including your partner, family or friends

Many men find it helpful to bring a partner or friend with them to appointments for extra support. If you’re married to, or in a civil partnership with, someone of the same gender you have the same rights as a person who is married to someone of a different gender – including in healthcare. Your husband or civil partner has an equal right to be your nearest relative. This means they can be involved in decisions about your healthcare.

If you're not married or in a civil partnership, then you can nominate a partner or friend as your ‘next of kin’. Next of kin can be anybody in your social or family group. Some men choose a close friend who they trust. Health professionals must respect your wishes about who this is. If you give permission, your partner or friend can:

  • go to your medical appointments
  • be included in discussions about your diagnosis, treatment and care
  • make sure your wishes are heard. 

Prostate Cancer UK's services are free and open to everyone, whether you are gay, bisexual, a trans person, non-binary, intersex, heterosexual, single or in a relationship. Partners and family members can also use our services.

Services include:

  • our Specialist Nurses
  • our one-to-one support service – let our Specialist Nurses know if you’d prefer to talk to a gay or bisexual man
  • our online community – this includes a section for gay and bisexual men, and men who have sex with men.
  • our sexual support service  - chance for you, or your partner, to talk to one of our Specialist Nurses with an interest in helping with sexual problems after treatment for prostate cancer. They can talk to you in depth about the impact of treatment on your sex life and relationships, and discuss possible treatments or ways to deal with these changes.

Support groups

There are support groups in the UK for gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer. The main ones are listed here.

Read more about support groups. Watch our film about Metro Walnut and the importance of supporting each other:

Gay and bisexual organisations

You may want to talk to organisations that support gay and bisexual men such as:


Updated: September 2023 | Due for Review: September 2026

  • Achterbergh RCA, Helm J van der, Boom W van den, Heijman T, Stolte IG, Rooijen M van, et al. Is rectal douching and sharing douching equipment associated with anorectal chlamydia and gonorrhoea? A cross-sectional study among men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect. 2017 Sep 1;93(6):431–7.
  • Ahmed HU, El-Shater Bosaily A, Brown LC, Gabe R, Kaplan R, Parmar MK, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of multi-parametric MRI and TRUS biopsy in prostate cancer (PROMIS): a paired validating confirmatory study. The Lancet. 2017 Jan;
  • Alexis O, Worsley AJ. The Experiences of Gay and Bisexual Men Post-Prostate Cancer Treatment: A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Studies. Am J Mens Health. 2018 Aug 16;1557988318793785.
  • Bower M, Palfreeman A, Alfa-Wali M, Bunker C, Burns F, Churchill D, et al. British HIV Association guidelines for HIV-associated malignancies 2014. HIV Med. 2014 Mar;15:1–92.
  • Cancer Research UK. Cancer incidence for common cancers (2015) [Internet]. [cited 2018 Dec 12]. Available from:
  • Cancer Research UK. Prostate cancer incidence statistics: by age (2013-2015) [Internet]. 2018. Available from:
  • Capistrant BD, Torres B, Merengwa E, West WG, Mitteldorf D, Rosser BRS. Caregiving and social support for gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer. Psychooncology. 2016 Nov;25(11):1329–36.
  • Chipperfield K, Brooker J, Fletcher J, Burney S. The impact of physical activity on psychosocial outcomes in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: A systematic review. Health Psychol. 2014;33(11):1288–97.
  • Dowsett GW. ‘ Losing My Chestnut’: One Gay Man’s Wrangle with Prostate Cancer. Reprod Health Matters. 2008;145–50.
  • Electronic Medicines Compendium. Cialis 2.5mg, 5mg, 10mg & 20mg film-coated tablets: Summary of Product Characteristics [Internet]. 2016. Available from:
  • Electronic Medicines Compendium. Sildenafil Accord 100 mg Film-coated Tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2017 Jan 16]. Available from:
  • Elliott MN, Kanouse DE, Burkhart Q, Abel GA, Lyratzopoulos G, Beckett MK, et al. Sexual Minorities in England Have Poorer Health and Worse Health Care Experiences: A National Survey. J Gen Intern Med. 2015 Jan;30(1):9–16.
  • Equality Act 2010.
  • Frey AU, Sønksen J, Fode M. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy: A Systematic Review. J Sex Med. 2014 Feb;11(2):374–85.
  • Goldstone SE. The Ups and Downs of Gay Sex After Prostate Cancer Treatment. J Gay Lesbian Psychother. 2005 Feb 15;9(1–2):43–55.
  • Hatzimouratidis K, Giuliano F, Moncada I, Muneer A, Salonia A, Verze P. EAU Guidelines on Erectile Dysfunction, Premature Ejaculation, Penile Curvature and Priapism. European Association of Urology; 2019.
  • Hulbert-Williams NJ, Plumpton C o., Flowers P, McHugh R, Neal R d., Semlyen J, et al. The cancer care experiences of gay, lesbian and bisexual patients: A secondary analysis of data from the UK Cancer Patient Experience Survey. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2017 Jul 1;26(4):n/a-n/a.
  • Izadmehr S, Leapman M, Hobbs AR, Katsigeorgis M, Nabizada-Pace F, Jazayeri SB, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of HIV-seropositive men treated with surgery for prostate cancer. Int Urol Nephrol. 2016 Oct;48(10):1639–45.
  • Johns LE, Houlston RS. A systematic review and meta-analysis of familial prostate cancer risk. BJU Int. 2003;91(9):789–94.
  • Kakhki VRD, Anvari K, Sadeghi R, Mahmoudian AS, Torabian-Kakhki M. Pattern and distribution of bone metastases in common malignant tumors. :4.
  • Kiciński M, Vangronsveld J, Nawrot TS. An Epidemiological Reappraisal of the Familial Aggregation of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE. 2011 Oct 31;6(10):e27130.
  • Kimura M, Caso JR, Bañez LL, Koontz BF, Gerber L, Senocak C, et al. Predicting participation in and successful outcome of a penile rehabilitation programme using a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor with a vacuum erection device after radical prostatectomy. BJU Int. 2012 Dec;110(11 Pt C):E931-938.
  • Latini DM, Hart SL, Coon DW, Knight SJ. Sexual rehabilitation after localized prostate cancer: current interventions and future directions. Cancer J Sudbury Mass. 2009 Feb;15(1):34–40.
  • Lawson JS, Glenn WK. Multiple pathogens and prostate cancer. Infect Agent Cancer. 2022 May 30;17(1):23.
  • Lisy K, Peters MDJ, Schofield P, Jefford M. Experiences and unmet needs of lesbian, gay and bisexual people with cancer care: a systematic review and meta-synthesis. Psychooncology. 2018;n/a-n/a.
  • Lloyd T, Hounsome L, Mehay A, Mee S, Verne J, Cooper A. Lifetime risk of being diagnosed with, or dying from, prostate cancer by major ethnic group in England 2008–2010. BMC Med [Internet]. 2015 Dec [cited 2015 Nov 5];13(1). Available from:
  • Martin-Tuite PJ, Shindel AW. Prostate cancer and sexual consequences among men who have sex with men. Int J Impot Res. 2021 May;33(4):473–9.
  • Matheson L, Watson E k., Nayoan J, Wagland R, Glaser A, Gavin A, et al. A qualitative metasynthesis exploring the impact of prostate cancer and its management on younger, unpartnered and gay men. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2017 Nov 1;26(6):n/a-n/a.
  • McInnis MK, Pukall CF. Sex After Prostate Cancer in Gay and Bisexual Men: A Review of the Literature. Sex Med Rev. 2020 Jul 1;8(3):466–72.  
  • Michaelson MD, Cotter SE, Gargollo PC, Zietman AL, Dahl DM, Smith MR. Management of Complications of Prostate Cancer Treatment. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008 Mar 19;58(4):196–213.
  • Mishra SI, Scherer RW, Snyder C, Geigle PM, Berlanstein DR, Topaloglu O. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for people with cancer during active treatment. In: The Cochrane Collaboration, editor. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012 [cited 2015 Sep 22]. Available from:
  • Muirhead GJ, Wulff MB, Fielding A, Kleinermans D, Buss N. Pharmacokinetic interactions between sildenafil and saquinavir/ritonavir. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Aug;50(2):99–107.
  • National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Suspected cancer: recognition and referral [Internet]. 2021. Available from:
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Lower urinary tract symptoms in men: management. 2015;26.
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate cancer: diagnosis and management [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2022 Dec 19]. Available from:
  • NHS England. Sexual Orientation Monitoring Information Standard [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 Jun 29]. Available from:
  • Office for Health Improvement and Disparities. Prostate specific antigen testing: advice for well men aged 50 and over [Internet]. GOV.UK; 2022 [cited 2022 Jan 27]. Available from:
  • Olsson CE, Alsadius D, Pettersson N, Tucker SL, Wilderäng U, Johansson KA, et al. Patient-reported sexual toxicity after radiation therapy in long-term prostate cancer survivors. Br J Cancer. 2015 Sep 1;113(5):802–8.
  • Prashar J, Schartau P, Murray E. Supportive care needs of men with prostate cancer: A systematic review update. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) [Internet]. 2022 Mar [cited 2022 Jun 20];31(2). Available from:
  • Pratt-Chapman ML, Alpert AB, Castillo DA. Health outcomes of sexual and gender minorities after cancer: a systematic review. Syst Rev. 2021 Dec;10(1):183.
  • Prostate cancer risk management programme: overview [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Jun 13]. Available from:
  • Prostate Cancer UK and Stonewall. Exploring the needs of gay and bisexual men dealing with prostate cancer. 2013.
  • Ralph S. Developing UK Guidance on How Long Men Should Abstain from Receiving Anal Sex before, During and after Interventions for Prostate Cancer. Clin Oncol. 2021 Dec;33(12):807–10.
  • Rose D, Ussher JM, Perz J. Let’s talk about gay sex: gay and bisexual men’s sexual communication with healthcare professionals after prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2017 Jan;26(1):e12469.
  • Rosenblatt KA, Wicklund KG, Stanford JL. Sexual factors and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Jun 15;153(12):1152–8.
  • Rosser BRS, Merengwa E, Capistrant BD, Iantaffi A, Kilian G, Kohli N, et al. Prostate cancer in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men: A review. LGBT Health. 2016;3(1):32–41.
  • Rosser BRS, Rider GN, Kapoor A, Talley KMC, Haggart R, Kohli N, et al. Every urologist and oncologist should know about treating sexual and gender minority prostate cancer patients: translating research findings into clinical practice. Transl Androl Urol. 2021 Jul;10(7):3208–25.
  • Russo GI, Calogero AE, Condorelli RA, Scalia G, Morgia G, La Vignera S. Human papillomavirus and risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aging Male. 2020 Apr 2;23(2):132–8.
  • Salonia A, Bettocchi C, Carvalho J, Corona G, Jones T, Kadioglu A, et al. EAU Guidelines on Sexual and Reproductive-Health. European Association of Urology; 2022.
  • Saunders CL, Meads C, Abel GA, Lyratzopoulos G. Associations Between Sexual Orientation and Overall and Site-Specific Diagnosis of Cancer: Evidence From Two National Patient Surveys in England. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Nov 10;35(32):3654–61.
  • Spence AR, Rousseau MC, Parent MÉ. Sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections, and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. 2014 Dec 1;38(6):700–7.
  • Sullivan JF, Stember DS, Deveci S, Akin‐Olugbade Y, Mulhall JP. Ejaculation Profiles of Men Following Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer. J Sex Med. 2013 May;10(5):1410–6.
  • Sun D, Cao M, Li H, Ren J, Shi J, Li N, et al. Risk of prostate cancer in men with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2021 Mar;24(1):24–34.
  • Terrence Higgins Trust (last). Interactions with other drugs [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 Jun 27]. Available from:
  • The NHS Constitution for England [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Jun 29]. Available from:
  • Thomas C, Wootten A, Robinson P. The experiences of gay and bisexual men diagnosed with prostate cancer: results from an online focus group: Gay and bisexual men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2013 Jul;22(4):522–9.
  • Ussher JM, Perz J, Kellett A, Chambers S, Latini D, Davis ID, et al. Health-Related Quality of Life, Psychological Distress, and Sexual Changes Following Prostate Cancer: A Comparison of Gay and Bisexual Men With Heterosexual Men. J Sex Med. 2016 Mar;13(3):425–34.
  • Ussher JM, Rose D, Perz J. Mastery, isolation, or acceptance: Gay and bisexual men’s construction of aging in the context of sexual embodiment after prostate cancer. J Sex Res. 2017 Jul;54(6):802–12.
  • Wassersug RJ, Lyons A, Duncan D, Dowsett GW, Pitts M. Diagnostic and Outcome Differences Between Heterosexual and Nonheterosexual Men Treated for Prostate Cancer. Urology. 2013 Jun 14;
  • White ID, Wilson J, Aslet P, Baxter AB, Birtle A, Challacombe B, et al. Development of UK guidance on the management of erectile dysfunction resulting from radical radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Int J Clin Pract. 2015 Jan;69(1):106–23.
  • Wong SK, Mohamad NV, Giaze TR, Chin KY, Mohamed N, Ima-Nirwana S. Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastases: The Underlying Mechanisms. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 May 27;20(10):2587.
  • World Cancer Research Fund. World Cancer Research Fund. Diet, nutrition, physical activity and prostate cancer. 2018.
  • Wosnitzer MS, Lowe FC. Management of prostate cancer in HIV-positive patients. Nat Rev Urol. 2010 Jun;7(6):348–57.
  • Xiang J, Yan H, Li J, Wang X, Chen H, Zheng X. Transperineal versus transrectal prostate biopsy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World J Surg Oncol. 2019 Feb 13;17:31.

This publication has been reviewed for accuracy and updated by:

  • Professor Christopher Eden, Consultant Urologist, London Bridge Hospital
  • Professor Joe O’Sullivan, Consultant Clinical Oncologist (Northern Ireland cancer care centre) and Professor of Radiation Oncology (Queen’s University Belfast)
  • Maggie Bingle, Prostate Cancer Clinical Nurse Specialist, East Suffolk and North Essex NHS Foundation Trust
  • Lorraine Grover, Psychosexual Nurse Specialist, The London Clinic and The Prostate Centre, London and The Shelburne Hospital,
  • Penny Champion, Advanced Nurse Practitioner - CRPC, The Royal Marsden Hospital, Urology Unit
  • Sean Ralph, Consultant Therapeutic Radiographer, Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust
  • Our Health Information Team
  • Our Specialist Nurses