This covers primary prevention and secondary prevention. Primary prevention research aims to stop men getting prostate cancer at all. Secondary prevention focuses on men who have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer and what can be done to prevent the disease progressing/getting worse.

Paul Thompson’s project, for example, is focussed on secondary prevention - using vitamin D to stop advanced cancer becoming hormone refractory (although this could also be classed as complementary). Chemoprevention and dietary interventions would be included in this category, and not in either treatment category. These projects would be laboratory studies, for example to test certain compounds in cell lines or animal models to try and gain an effect of tumour, or basic biological functional studies of the interaction of the tumour with a compound.

Specific tailored diets, supplement regimes and studies to test the effect or prevalence of a specific dietary compound in men with prostate cancer would be included in complementary and alternative therapy.