This fact sheet explains some of the medical words that you may read or hear when you are finding out about prostate problems and prostate cancer.

Last updated December 2014
Due to be reviewed December 2017


  • De Bono JS, Logothetis Cj, Molina A et al. Abiraterone and increased survival in metastatic prostate cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;364(21):1995-2005.
  • Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J, et al. Guidelines on prostate cancer. European Associationn of Urology, March 2013.
  • Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). January 2014. Clinical guideline 175.
  • Selvadurai ED, Singhera M, Thomas K, et al. Medium-term outcomes of active surveillance for localised prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2013; 64 (6): 981-87.
  • Nguyen HD, Allen BJ, Pow-Sang JM. Focal cryotherapy in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Cancer Control. 2013 Jul;20(3):177-80.
  • Agarwal G & Spiess PE. Prostate cancer: Focal cryotherapy freezes recurrent disease in its tracks. Nat Rev Urol. 2013 Oct;10(10):562-3.
  • Albertsen PC, Hanley JA, Fine J. 20-year outcomes following conservative management of clinically localized prostate cancer. JAMA; 2005.
  • Kulik A, Dąbkowski M. Prostate cancer radiotherapy. Contemporary Oncology 2011;15(5):317-22
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment. Clinical guideline. Full guideline. January 2014.
  • Multi-disciplinary team (MDT) guidance for managing prostate cancer. British Uro-oncology Group, British Association of Urological Surgeons: Section of Oncology. September 2013.
  • Koontz BF, Lee WR. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer. [Review]. Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America 2013;22(3):483–94.
  • Dearnaley D, Syndikus I, Sumo G, et al. Conventional versus hypofractionated high-dose intensity modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: preliminary safety results from the CHHiP randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:43–54
  • Lumen N, Ost P, Van Praet C, et al. Developments in external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Urology 2013;82(1):510
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008). Metastatic spinal cord compression. Diagnosis and management of adults at risk of and with metastatic spinal cord compression
  • Dorey G, Speakman MJ, Feneley RC et al. Pelvic floor exercises for erectile dysfunction. BJU International 2005;96;595-597
  • Campbell SE, Glazener CMA, Hunter KF et al. Conservative management for postprostatectomy urinary incontinence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 1. Art no:CD001843.DOI: 10.1002/14651858
  • Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme information for primary care; PSA testing in asymptomatic men. Evidence document January 2010

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