Research round up from the clinic - top four articles from February 2015
1: Increasing cancer rates
Ahmad and his colleagues estimated the lifetime risk of cancer in Britain for men and women born in each year from 1930 to 1960. The article, published in the British Journal of Cancer, concluded the lifetime risk of cancer increase from 39% to 54% for men born in 1930 and 1960 respectively. Cancer Research UK, who co-authored the paper, also featured details of the study in its Science blog.
2: Novel prostate cancer drugs which target protein receptors could provide effective treatments for advanced prostate cancer
Early state prostate cancer tumours depend on hormones called androgens. As the disease progresses, it becomes resistant to drugs that block androgen receptors. Researchers from the United States found that GPR158, unlike other members of the GPCR family, is stimulated by androgens, which in turn stimulates androgen receptor expression, leading to tumour growth. Patel and his colleagues conclude their data suggest GPR158 could provide a target for new prostate cancer drugs.
Dr Matthew Hobbs, deputy director of research at Prostate Cancer UK, said: "There's still so much we don't know about advanced prostate cancer. Working out why the disease stops responding to treatment over time is one of the big unanswered questions. The findings revealed in this paper provide us with another clue, but we've still got a long way to go."
3: American cancer society prostate cancer survivorship care guidelines endorsed
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has endorsed the American Cancer Society’s Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines. The guidelines provide recommendations to primary care physicians on best practices in follow-up care for men after prostate cancer treatment.
The recommendations include health promotion, prostate cancer surveillance, screening for new cancers, long-term and late functional effects of the disease and its treatment, psychosocial issues, and coordination of care between the survivor’s primary care physician and prostate cancer specialist in the United States.
4: Final survival analysis of a phase 3 study of abiraterone and prednisone
Ryan and colleagues report the final analysis of overall survival from a randomised phase 3 trial of abiraterone and prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced and aggressive prostate cancer. The results showed that lived more than four months longer on average if they received abiraterone before chemotherapy than if they did not.
Owen Sharp, chief executive of Prostate Cancer UK, said: "This data further confirms the huge benefits of abiraterone for men with incurable prostate cancer who haven't yet received chemotherapy. We want to see this additional evidence swiftly lead to this use of abiraterone being routinely available for all men who need it in the UK."
Risk of second cancers according to radiation therapy technique and modality in prostate cancer survivors.
Berrington de Gonzalez A, Wong J, Kleinerman R, Kim C, Morton L, Bekelman JE.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015 Feb;91(2):295–302.
Safety and effectiveness of enzalutamide in men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Graff JN, Gordon MJ, Beer TM.
Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015 Feb;1–6.
Final Report of the Intergroup Randomized Study of Combined Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Plus Radiotherapy Versus Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Alone in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer.
Mason MD, Parulekar WR, Sydes MR, Brundage M, Kirkbride P, Gospodarowicz M, et al.
J Clin Oncol. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].
An update on enzalutamide in the treatment of prostate cancer.
Merseburger AS, Haas GP, von Klot C-A.
Ther Adv Urol. 2015 Feb;7(1):9–21.
Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (COU-AA-302): final overall survival analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study.
Ryan CJ, Smith MR, Fizazi K, Saad F, Mulders PFA, Sternberg CN, et al.
Lancet Oncol. 2015 Feb;16(2):152–60.
High risk of under-grading and -staging in prostate cancer patients eligible for active surveillance.
Heidegger I, Skradski V, Steiner E, Klocker H, Pichler R, Pircher A, et al.
PloS One. 2015; 10(2):e0115537.
BPH / Prostatitis / PIN
Depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Pietrzyk B, Olszanecka-Glinianowicz M, Owczarek A, Gabryelewicz T, Almgren-Rachtan A, Prajsner A, et al.
Int Urol Nephrol. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].
Nocturia in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: evaluating the significance of ageing, co-morbid illnesses, lifestyle and medical therapy in treatment outcome in real life practice.
Singam P, Hong GE, Ho C, Hee TG, Jasman H, Inn FX, et al.
Aging Male. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].
Tweeting About Prostate and Testicular Cancers: Do Twitter Conversations and the 2013 Movember Canada Campaign Objectives Align?
Bravo CA, Hoffman-Goetz L.
J Cancer Educ. 2015 Fe;b [epub ahead of print].
Diagnosis / Screening
Incidence and Predictors of Upgrading and Upstaging Among 10,000 Contemporary Patients with Low-risk Prostate Cancer.
Dinh KT, Mahal BA, Ziehr DR, Muralidhar V, Chen Y-W, Viswanathan VB, et al.
J Urol. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].
Economic evaluation of prostate cancer screening: a systematic review.
Lao C, Brown C, Rouse P, Edlin R, Lawrenson R.
Future Oncol Lond Engl. 2015 Feb;11(3):467–77.
Does obesity modify the ability of pre-biopsy PSA to detect prostate cancer on repeat biopsy? Results from the REDUCE study.
Vidal AC, Howard LE, Moreira DM, Castro-Santamaria R, Andriole GL, Freedland SJ.
J Urol. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print]
Enthusiasm for cancer screening in Great Britain: a general population survey.
Waller J, Osborne K, Wardle J.
Br J Cancer. 2015 Feb;112(3):562–6.
Effects of three-times-per-week versus on-demand tadalafil treatment on erectile function and continence recovery following bilateral nerve sparing radical prostatectomy: Results of a prospective, randomized, and single-center study.
Canat L, Güner B, Gürbüz C, Atış G, Çaşkurlu T.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2015 Feb;31(2):90–5.
Penile Rehabilitation After Radical Prostatectomy.
Cohen DJ, Glina S.
Curr Drug Targets. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].
Management of end-stage erectile dysfunction and stress urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy by simultaneous dual implantation using a single trans-scrotal incision: surgical technique and outcomes.
Martínez-Salamanca JI, Espinós EL, Moncada I, Portillo LD, Carballido J.
Asian J Androl. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].
Improvements in Radiographic Progression-Free Survival Stratified by ERG Gene Status in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Abiraterone.
Attard G, de Bono JS, Logothetis CJ, Fizazi K, Mukherjee SD, Joshua AM, et al.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Jan; [epub ahead of print].
Genomic Classifier Identifies Men With Adverse Pathology After Radical Prostatectomy Who Benefit From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy.
Den RB, Yousefi K, Trabulsi EJ, Abdollah F, Choeurng V, Feng FY, et al.
J Clin Oncol. 2015 Feb 9;JCO.2014.59.0026.
Expression and Functional Role of Orphan Receptor GPR158 in Prostate Cancer Growth and Progression.
Patel N, Itakura T, Jeong S, Liao C-P, Roy-Burman P, Zandi E, et al.
PloS One. 2015;10(2):e0117758.
Impact of Age on Quality-of-life Outcomes After Treatment for Localized Prostate Cancer.
Hampson LA, Cowan JE, Zhao S, Carroll PR, Cooperberg MR.
Eur Urol. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].
Self-Reported Health Status Predicts Other-Cause Mortality in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer: Results from the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study.
Hoffman RM, Koyama T, Albertsen PC, Barry MJ, Daskivich TJ, Goodman M, et al.
J Gen Intern Med. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].
Quality of Life
Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Endorsement.
Resnick MJ, Lacchetti C, Bergman J, Hauke RJ, Hoffman KE, Kungel TM, et al.
J Clin Oncol. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].
Asthma and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the health professionals follow-up study.
Platz EA, Drake CG, Wilson KM, Sutcliffe S, Kenfield SA, Mucci LA, et al.
Int J Cancer. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].
Impact of metformin on clinical outcomes among men with prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Raval AD, Thakker D, Vyas A, Salkini M, Madhavan S, Sambamoorthi U.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].
Methods for the estimation of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence cost-effectiveness threshold.
Claxton K, Martin S, Soares M, Rice N, Spackman E, Hinde S, et al.
Health Technol Assess. 2015 Feb;19(14):1–504.
Trends in the lifetime risk of developing cancer in Great Britain: comparison of risk for those born from 1930 to 1960.
Ahmad AS, Ormiston-Smith N, Sasieni PD.
Br J Cancer. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].
Avoiding and managing vascular injury during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.
Sotelo R, Nunez Bragayrac LA, Machuca V, Garza Cortes R, Azhar RA.
Ther Adv Urol. 2015 Feb;7(1):41–8.
Complications following surgery with or without radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone for prostate cancer.
Wallis CJD, Cheung P, Herschorn S, Saskin R, Su J, Klotz LH, et al.
Br J Cancer. 2015 Feb; [epub ahead of print].