This fact sheet is for men who would like to find out more about prostate cancer that is no longer responding so well to their first hormone therapy. It describes treatments that may help and other sources of support.

Last updated: August 2017
To be reviewed: August 2019



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  • De Bono JS, Logothetis CJ, Molina A, Fizazi K, North S, Chu L, et al. Abiraterone and increased survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(21):1995–2005.
  • De Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M, Hansen S, Machiels J-P, Kocak I, et al. Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial. The Lancet. 2010 Oct;376(9747):1147–54.
  • Dorff TB, Crawford ED. Management and challenges of corticosteroid therapy in men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Ann Oncol. 2013 Jan 1;24(1):31–8.
  • European Association of Urology. Guidelines on Prostate Cancer. 2014.
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  • Muthuramalingam SR, Patel K, Protheroe A. Management of patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer. Clin Oncol. 2004 Dec;16(8):505–16.
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate Cancer: diagnosis and treatment. 2014.
  • NHS England. National Cancer Drugs Fund drugs list [Internet]. 2014. Available from:
  • Noonan KL, North S, Bitting RL, Armstrong AJ, Ellard SL, Chi KN. Clinical activity of abiraterone acetate in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after enzalutamide. Ann Oncol. 2013 Jul 1;24(7):1802–7.
  • Parker C, Nilsson S, Heinrich D, Helle SI, O’Sullivan JM, Fosså SD, et al. Alpha Emitter Radium-223 and Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jul 18;369(3):213–23.
  • Simmons MN, Klein EA. Combined Androgen Blockade Revisited: Emerging Options for the Treatment of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Urology. 2009 Apr;73(4):697–705.
  • Wilkins A, Shahidi M, Parker C, Gunapala R, Thomas K, Huddart R, et al. Diethylstilbestrol in castration-resistant prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2012 Dec 1;110(11b):E727–35.

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