This booklet is for men who’ve recently been diagnosed with prostate cancer. We explain what prostate cancer is, the tests you may have to diagnose it, and the treatment options available.

Last updated: May 2019
To be reviewed: September 2021

References  

  • Aaron L, Franco O, Hayward SW. Review of Prostate Anatomy and Embryology and the Etiology of BPH. Urol Clin North Am. 2016 Aug;43(3):279–88.
  • Ahmed HU, El-Shater Bosaily A, Brown LC, Gabe R, Kaplan R, Parmar MK, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of multi-parametric MRI and TRUS biopsy in prostate cancer (PROMIS): a paired validating confirmatory study. The Lancet. 2017 Jan;
  • Albertsen PC, Hanley JA, Fine J. 20-year outcomes following conservative management of clinically localized prostate cancer. Jama. 2005;293(17):2095–2101.
  • Allott EH, Masko EM, Freedland SJ. Obesity and Prostate Cancer: Weighing the Evidence. Eur Urol. 2013 May;63(5):800–9.
  • Berney DM. The case for modifying the Gleason grading system. BJU Int. 2007;100(4):725–726.
  • Bourke L, Smith D, Steed L, Hooper R, Carter A, Catto J, et al. Exercise for Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2016 Apr;69(4):693–703.
  • Bower JE, Bak K, Berger A, Breitbart W, Escalante CP, Ganz PA, et al. Screening, Assessment, and Management of Fatigue in Adult Survivors of Cancer: An American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Adaptation. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Jun 10;32(17):1840–50.
  • Cancer Research UK. Prostate cancer incidence statistics: Lifetime risk of prostate cancer (2012) [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2018 Apr 19]. Available from: http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/statistics-by-cancer-type/prostate-cancer/incidence#collapseFive
  • Cao Y, Ma J. Body Mass Index, Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality, and Biochemical Recurrence: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2011 Jan 13;4(4):486–501.
  • Collin SM, Metcalfe C, Donovan J, Lane JA, Davis M, Neal D, et al. Associations of lower urinary tract symptoms with prostate-specific antigen levels, and screen-detected localized and advanced prostate cancer: a case-control study nested within the UK population-based ProtecT (Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment) study. BJU Int. 2008 Jun 6;102(0):1400–6.
  • Crouzet S, Rouviere O, Martin X, Gelet A. High-intensity focused ultrasound as focal therapy of prostate cancer: Curr Opin Urol. 2014 May;24(3):225–30.
  • Davies NJ, Batehup L, Thomas R. The role of diet and physical activity in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivorship: a review of the literature. Br J Cancer. 2011 Nov 8;105:S52–73.
  • de Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M, Hansen S, Machiels J-P, Kocak I, et al. Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial. Lancet. 2010 Oct 2;376(9747):1147–54.
  • Discacciati A, Orsini N, Wolk A. Body mass index and incidence of localized and advanced prostate cancer--a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Ann Oncol. 2012 Jan 6;23(7):1665–71.
  • Epstein JI, Allsbrook Jr WC, Amin MB, Egevad LL, Committee IG, others. The 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) consensus conference on Gleason grading of prostatic carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29(9):1228–1242.
  • Epstein JI, Egevad L, Amin MB, Delahunt B, Srigley JR, Humphrey PA, et al. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) consensus conference on Gleason grading of prostatic carcinoma: definition of grading patterns and proposal for a new grading system. Am J Surg Pathol. 2016;40(2):244–252.
  • Gardner JR, Livingston PM, Fraser SF. Effects of Exercise on Treatment-Related Adverse Effects for Patients With Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen-Deprivation Therapy: A Systematic Review. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Feb 1;32(4):335–46.
  • General Medical Council. Confidentiality: Good practice in handling patient information [Internet]. 2017. Available from: https://www.gmc-uk.org/static/documents/content/Confidentiality_good_practice_in_handling_patient_information_-_English_0417.pdf
  • Gerdtsson A, Poon JB, Thorek DL, Mucci LA, Evans MJ, Scardino P, et al. Anthropometric Measures at Multiple Times Throughout Life and Prostate Cancer Diagnosis, Metastasis, and Death. Eur Urol. 2015 Dec;68(6):1076–82.
  • Golan R, Bernstein AN, McClure TD, Sedrakyan A, Patel NA, Parekh DJ, et al. Partial Gland Treatment of Prostate Cancer Using High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound in the Primary and Salvage Settings: A Systematic Review. J Urol. 2017 Nov;198(5):1000–9.
  • Gruca D, Bacher P, Tunn U. Safety and tolerability of intermittent androgen deprivation therapy: A literature review: IAD therapy in prostate cancer. Int J Urol. 2012 Jul;19(7):614–25.
  • Guillaumier S, Peters M, Arya M, Afzal N, Charman S, Dudderidge T, et al. A Multicentre Study of 5-year Outcomes Following Focal Therapy in Treating Clinically Significant Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol [Internet]. 2018 Jun [cited 2018 Jul 9]; Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0302283818304317
  • Hamdy FC, Donovan JL, Lane JA, Mason M, Metcalfe C, Holding P, et al. 10-Year Outcomes after Monitoring, Surgery, or Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016 Sep 14;
  • Hechtman LM. Clinical Naturopathic Medicine [Internet]. Harcourt Publishers Group (Australia); 2014 [cited 2015 Jul 21]. 1610 p. Available from: http://www.bookdepository.com/Clinical-Naturopathic-Medicine-Leah-Hechtman/9780729541923
  • Henson CC, Burden S, Davidson SE, Lal S, Lal S. Nutritional interventions for reducing gastrointestinal toxicity in adults undergoing radical pelvic radiotherapy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2014 Nov 18];(11). Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD009896.pub2
  • Ho T, Gerber L, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, Presti JC, Kane CJ, et al. Obesity, Prostate-Specific Antigen Nadir, and Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy: Biology or Technique? Results from the SEARCH Database. Eur Urol. 2012 Nov;62(5):910–6.
  • Hu M-B, Xu H, Bai P-D, Jiang H-W, Ding Q. Obesity has multifaceted impact on biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of 36,927 patients. Med Oncol Northwood Lond Engl. 2014 Feb;31(2):829.
  • Husson O, Mols F, Poll-Franse LV van de. The relation between information provision and health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression among cancer survivors: a systematic review. Ann Oncol. 2010 Sep 24;mdq413.
  • Ilic D, Neuberger MM, Djulbegovic M, Dahm P. Screening for prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(1).
  • Jung JH, Risk MC, Goldfarb R, Reddy B, Coles B, Dahm P. Primary cryotherapy for localised or locally advanced prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Sep 6];(5). Available from: https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005010.pub3/abstract
  • Keilani M, Hasenoehrl T, Baumann L, Ristl R, Schwarz M, Marhold M, et al. Effects of resistance exercise in prostate cancer patients: a meta-analysis. Support Care Cancer. 2017 Jun 10;
  • Keogh JWL, MacLeod RD. Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Functional Performance, Quality of Life, and Fatigue Benefits of Exercise for Prostate Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012 Jan;43(1):96–110.
  • Keto CJ, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, Presti JC, Kane CJ, Amling CL, et al. Obesity is associated with castration-resistant disease and metastasis in men treated with androgen deprivation therapy after radical prostatectomy: results from the SEARCH database. BJU Int. 2011;110(4):492–8.
  • Kiciński M, Vangronsveld J, Nawrot TS. An Epidemiological Reappraisal of the Familial Aggregation of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. Little J, editor. PLoS ONE. 2011 Oct 31;6(10):e27130.
  • Kurzrock R. The role of cytokines in cancer-related fatigue. Cancer. 2001;92(S6):1684–1688.
  • Langston B, Armes J, Levy A, Tidey E, Ream E. The prevalence and severity of fatigue in men with prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Support Care Cancer Off J Multinatl Assoc Support Care Cancer. 2013 Jun;21(6):1761–71.
  • Larkin D, Lopez V, Aromataris E. Managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer: A systematic review of non-pharmacological interventions. Int J Nurs Pract. 2014 Oct;20(5):549–60.
  • Lin P-H, Aronson W, Freedland SJ. Nutrition, dietary interventions and prostate cancer: the latest evidence. BMC Med [Internet]. 2015 Dec [cited 2017 Oct 30];13(1). Available from: http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-014-0234-y
  • Lloyd T, Hounsome L, Mehay A, Mee S, Verne J, Cooper A. Lifetime risk of being diagnosed with, or dying from, prostate cancer by major ethnic group in England 2008–2010. BMC Med. 2015 Jul 30;13(1):171.
  • Macherey S, Monsef I, Jahn F, Jordan K, Yuen KK, Heidenreich A, et al. Bisphosphonates for advanced prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2017 Dec 26 [cited 2018 Jan 5]; Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006250.pub2/abstract
  • Menichetti J, Villa S, Magnani T, Avuzzi B, Bosetti D, Marenghi C, et al. Lifestyle interventions to improve the quality of life of men with prostate cancer: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016 Dec;108:13–22.
  • Moch H, Cubilla A, Humphrey P, Reuter V, Ulbright T. The 2016 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs—Part B: Prostate and BladderTumours [Internet]. 2016. Available from: http://www.europeanurology.com/article/S0302-2838%2816%2900205-0/abstract/the-2016-who-classification-of-tumours-of-the-urinary-system-and-male-genital-organs-part-b-prostate-and-bladder-tumours
  • Mohamad H, McNeill G, Haseen F, N’Dow J, Craig LCA, Heys SD. The Effect of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Body Weight in Prostate Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review. Nutr Cancer. 2015 Jan 2;67(1):43–60.
  • Mohammed N, Kestin L, Ghilezan M, Krauss D, Vicini F, Brabbins D, et al. Comparison of acute and late toxicities for three modern high-dose radiation treatment techniques for localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012 Jan 1;82(1):204–12.
  • Mottet N, Van den Bergh RCN, Briers E, Bourke L, Cornford P, De Santis M, et al. EAU - ESTRO - ESUR - SIOG Guidelines on Prostate Cancer. European Association of Urology; 2018.
  • Mouraviev V, Spiess PE, Jones JS. Salvage Cryoablation for Locally Recurrent Prostate Cancer Following Primary Radiotherapy. Eur Urol. 2012 Jun;61(6):1204–11.
  • National Institute for Clinical Excellence. High-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer. Interventional procedure guidance 118. 2005.
  • National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Osteoporosis - prevention of fragility fractures - Clinical Knowledge Summary [Internet]. 2016. Available from: http://cks.nice.org.uk/osteoporosis-prevention-of-fragility-fractures#!scenario:1
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Docetaxel for the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. NICE technology appraisal guidance 101. 2006.
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Low dose rate brachytherapy for localised prostate cancer. Interventional procedure guidance 132. 2005.
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Patient experience in adult NHS services: improving the experience of care for people using adult NHS services. Clinical guideline 138. 2012.
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate Cancer: diagnosis and treatment. Full guideline 175. 2014.
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Cryotherapy as a primary treatment for prostate cancer. Interventional procedure guidance 145. 2005.
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. High dose rate brachytherapy in combination with external-beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer. Interventional procedure guidance 174. 2006;
  • Ndibe C, Wang CG, Sonpavde G. Corticosteroids in the Management of Prostate Cancer: A Critical Review. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2015;16(2).
  • NHS England. Clinical Commissioning Policy Statement: Docetaxel in combination with androgen deprivation therapy for the treatment of hormone naive metastatic prostate cancer. 2016.
  • O’Donnell H, Parker C. What is low-risk prostate cancer and what is its natural history? World J Urol. 2008 Oct;26(5):415–22.
  • Parker C, Nilsson S, Heinrich D, Helle SI, O’Sullivan JM, Fosså SD, et al. Alpha Emitter Radium-223 and Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(3):213–23.
  • Parker CC, James ND, Brawley CD, Clarke NW, Hoyle AP, Ali A, et al. Radiotherapy to the primary tumour for newly diagnosed, metastatic prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): a randomised controlled phase 3 trial. The Lancet. 2018 Oct;
  • Patrick DL, Cleeland CS, von Moos R, Fallowfield L, Wei R, Öhrling K, et al. Pain outcomes in patients with bone metastases from advanced cancer: assessment and management with bone-targeting agents. Support Care Cancer [Internet]. 2014 Dec 23 [cited 2015 Feb 18]; Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00520-014-2525-4
  • Peinemann F, Grouven U, Hemkens LG, Bartel C, Borchers H, Pinkawa M, et al. Low-dose rate brachytherapy for men with localized prostate cancer. The Cochrane Collaboration, editor. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jul 6;
  • Pettersson A, Johansson B, Persson C, Berglund A, Turesson I. Effects of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life: A randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol. 2012 Jun;103(3):333–40.
  • Price CP, Allard J, Davies G, Dawnay A, Duffy MJ, France M, et al. Pre-and post-analytical factors that may influence use of serum prostate specific antigen and its isoforms in a screening programme for prostate cancer. Ann Clin Biochem. 2001;38(3):188–216.
  • Public Health England. Prostate cancer risk management programme (PCRMP): benefits and risks of PSA testing [Internet]. GOV.UK; 2016. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/prostate-cancer-risk-management-programme-psa-test-benefits-and-risks/prostate-cancer-risk-management-programme-pcrmp-benefits-and-risks-of-psa-testing
  • Punnen S, Cooperberg MR, D’Amico AV, Karakiewicz PI, Moul JW, Scher HI, et al. Management of Biochemical Recurrence After Primary Treatment of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Eur Urol. 2013 Dec 1;64(6):905–15.
  • Ramsay CR, Adewuyi TE, Gray J, Hislop J, Shirley MD, Jayakody S, et al. Ablative therapy for people with localised prostate cancer: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2015 Jul;19(49):1–490.
  • Richman EL, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Paciorek A, Carroll PR, Chan JM. Physical Activity after Diagnosis and Risk of Prostate Cancer Progression: Data from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor. Cancer Res. 2011 May 24;71(11):3889–95.
  • Rosoff JS, Savage SJ, Prasad SM. Salvage radical prostatectomy as management of locally recurrent prostate cancer: outcomes and complications. World J Urol. 2013 Dec;31(6):1347–52.
  • Sanofi-Aventis. TAXOTERE® (docetaxel) Injection Concentrate - Prescribing Information. 2014.
  • Sathianathen NJ, Philippou YA, Kuntz GM, Konety BR, Lamb AD, Dahm P. Taxane‐based chemohormonal therapy for metastatic hormone‐sensitive prostate cancer. In: The Cochrane Library [Internet]. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017 [cited 2018 Jul 24]. Available from: http://cochranelibrary-wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD012816/full
  • Saylor PJ, Smith MR. Metabolic Complications of Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer. J Urol. 2013 Jan;189(1):S34–44.
  • Serpa Neto A, Tobias-Machado M, Esteves MAP, Senra MD, Wroclawski ML, Fonseca FLA, et al. Bisphosphonate therapy in patients under androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2012;15(1):36–44.
  • Singer EA, Srinivasan R. Intravenous therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer: Toxicities and adverse events. Urol Oncol Semin Orig Investig. 2012 Jul;30(4):S15–9.
  • Speakman M, Kirby R, Doyle S, Ioannou C. Burden of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) - focus on the UK: Burden of male LUTS suggestive of BPH. BJU Int. 2015 Apr;115(4):508–19.
  • Teleni L, Chan RJ, Chan A, Isenring EA, Vela I, Inder WJ, et al. Exercise improves quality of life in androgen deprivation therapy-treated prostate cancer: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016 Feb 1;23(2):101–12.
  • Thompson IM, Pauler DK, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, Lucia MS, Parnes HL, et al. Prevalence of prostate cancer among men with a prostate-specific antigen level ≤4.0 ng per milliliter. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(22):2239–46.
  • Tillisch K. Complementary and alternative medicine for functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gut. 2006 May 1;55(5):593–6.
  • Wang LS, Murphy CT, Ruth K, Zaorsky NG, Smaldone MC, Sobczak ML, et al. Impact of obesity on outcomes after definitive dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Cancer. 2015 Sep 1;121(17):3010–7.
  • Wedlake LJ, Shaw C, Whelan K, Andreyev HJN. Systematic review: the efficacy of nutritional interventions to counteract acute gastrointestinal toxicity during therapeutic pelvic radiotherapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jun;37(11):1046–56.
  • Wolin KY, Luly J, Sutcliffe S, Andriole GL, Kibel AS. Risk of Urinary Incontinence Following Prostatectomy: The Role of Physical Activity and Obesity. J Urol. 2010 Feb;183(2):629–33.
  • World Cancer Research Fund International. Continuous Update Project report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Prostate Cancer [Internet]. 2014. Available from: www.wcrf.org/sites/default/files/Prostate-Cancer-2014-Report.pdf
  • Zelefsky MJ, Levin EJ, Hunt M, Yamada Y, Shippy AM, Jackson A, et al. Incidence of late rectal and urinary toxicities after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol. 2008;70(4):1124–9.

About this publication  

This booklet is for men who’ve recently been diagnosed with prostate cancer. We explain what prostate cancer is, the tests you may have to diagnose it, and the treatment options available.

Order printed copies of this publication

Before you order we would like to know who you are, and why you are ordering printed copies.

Download digital versions of this publication