This fact sheet is for men who are thinking about having permanent seed brachytherapy to treat their prostate cancer.
Last updated: March 2019 To be reviewed: June 2021
Bhatnagar V, Stewart ST, Huynh V, Jorgensen G, Kaplan RM. Estimating the risk of long-term erectile, urinary and bowel symptoms resulting from prostate cancer treatment. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2006;9(2):136–146.
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Bownes P, Coles I, Doggart A, Kehoe T. UK Guidance on Radiation Protection Issues following Permanent Iodine- 125 Seed Prostate Brachytherapy [Internet]. 2012. Available from: http://www.ipem.ac.uk/Publications/UKGuidanceonRadiationProtectionIssuesfollowi.aspx
British Uro-oncology Group (BUG), British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS). Multi-disciplinary Team (MDT) Guidance for Managing Prostate Cancer. 2013.
Budäus L, Bolla M, Bossi A, Cozzarini C, Crook J, Widmark A, et al. Functional outcomes and complications following radiation therapy for prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature. Eur Urol. 2012;61(1):112–27.
Chao MWT, Grimm P, Yaxley J, Jagavkar R, Ng M, Lawrentschuk N. Brachytherapy: state-of-the-art radiotherapy in prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2015 Oct;116:80–8.
Davies NJ, Batehup L, Thomas R. The role of diet and physical activity in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivorship: a review of the literature. Br J Cancer. 2011 Nov 8;105:S52–73.
Gaztañaga M, Crook J. Interpreting a rising prostate-specific antigen after brachytherapy for prostate cancer: Rising PSA after brachytherapy. Int J Urol. 2013 Feb;20(2):142–7.
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Grimm P, Billiet I, Bostwick D, Dicker A, Frank S, Immerzeel J, et al. Comparative analysis of prostate-specific antigen free survival outcomes for patients with low, intermediate and high risk prostate cancer treatment by radical therapy. Results from the Prostate Cancer Results Study Group. BJU Int. 2012;109:22–9.
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International Commission on Radiological Protection. Radiation safety aspects of brachytherapy for prostate cancer using permanently implanted sources. A report of ICRP Publication 98. Ann ICRP. 2005;35(3):iii–vi, 3-50.
Keogh JWL, MacLeod RD. Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Functional Performance, Quality of Life, and Fatigue Benefits of Exercise for Prostate Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012 Jan;43(1):96–110.
Kishan A, Kupelian P. Late rectal toxicity after low-dose-rate brachytherapy: incidence, predictors, and management of side effects. Brachytherapy. 2014;14(2):148–59.
Larkin D, Lopez V, Aromataris E. Managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer: A systematic review of non-pharmacological interventions: Managing prostate cancer fatigue. Int J Nurs Pract. 2014 Oct;20(5):549–60.
Marcus DM, Jani AB, Godette K, Rossi PJ. A review of low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy-techniques and outcomes. J Natl Med Assoc. 2010;102(6):500.
Michalski J, Mutic S, Eichling J, Ahmed SN. Radiation exposure to family and household members after prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol. 2003 Jul;56(3):764–8.
Miller NL, Theodorescu D. Health-related quality of life after prostate brachytherapy. BJU Int. 2004;94(4):487–491.
Mishra SI, Scherer RW, Geigle PM, Berlanstein DR, Topaloglu O, Gotay CC, et al. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;8:CD007566.
Miyazawa K, Matoba M, Minato H, Morita N, Chikazawa I, Ota K, et al. Seed migration after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with I-125 free seeds: analysis of its incidence and risk factors. Jpn J Radiol. 2012 Oct;30(8):635–41.
Mohammed N, Kestin L, Ghilezan M, Krauss D, Vicini F, Brabbins D, et al. Comparison of acute and late toxicities for three modern high-dose radiation treatment techniques for localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012 Jan 1;82(1):204–12.
Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Briers E, Bolla M, Cornford P, De Santis M, et al. Guidelines on prostate cancer. European Association of Urology; 2016.
Mydlo JH, Lebed B. Does brachytherapy of the prostate affect sperm quality and/or fertility in younger men? Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2004;38(3):221–4.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Low dose rate brachytherapy for localised prostate cancer. Interventional procedure guidance 132. 2005.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate Cancer: diagnosis and treatment. Full guideline 175. 2014.
Peinemann F, Grouven U, Bartel C, Sauerland S, Borchers H, Pinkawa M, et al. Permanent Interstitial Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Patients with Localised Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review of Randomised and Nonrandomised Controlled Clinical Trials. Eur Urol. 2011 Nov;60(5):881–93.
Peinemann F, Grouven U, Hemkens LG, Bartel C, Borchers H, Pinkawa M, et al. Low-dose rate brachytherapy for men with localized prostate cancer. The Cochrane Collaboration, editor. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jul 6;
Pettersson A, Johansson B, Persson C, Berglund A, Turesson I. Effects of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life: A randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol. 2012 Jun;103(3):333–40.
Phan J, Swanson DA, Levy LB, Kudchadker RJ, Bruno TL, Frank SJ. Late rectal complications after prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer: Incidence and management. Cancer. 2009 May 1;115(9):1827–39.
Price JG, Stone NN, Stock RG. Predictive Factors and Management of Rectal Bleeding Side Effects Following Prostate Cancer Brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol. 2013 Aug;86(5):842–7.
Richman EL, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Paciorek A, Carroll PR, Chan JM. Physical Activity after Diagnosis and Risk of Prostate Cancer Progression: Data from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor. Cancer Res. 2011 May 24;71(11):3889–95.
Rodrigues G, Yao X, Loblaw AD, Brundage M, Chin JL. Low-dose rate brachytherapy for patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer: a systematic review. Can Urol Assoc J [Internet]. 2013 Dec 5 [cited 2016 Oct 4];7(11–12). Available from: http://journals.sfu.ca/cuaj/index.php/journal/article/view/1482
Royal College of Radiologists. Quality assurance practice guidelines for transperineal LDR permanent seed brachytherapy of prostate cancer. 2012.
Schutzer ME, Orio PF, Biagioli MC, Asher DA, Lomas H, Moghanaki D. A review of rectal toxicity following permanent low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy and the potential value of biodegradable rectal spacers. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2015 Jun;18(2):96–103.
Simon Rosser BR, Merengwa E, Capistrant BD, Iantaffi A, Kilian G, Kohli N, et al. Prostate cancer in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men: A review. LGBT Health. 2016;3(1):32–41.
Sugawara A, Nakashima J, Kunieda E, Nagata H, Shiraishi Y, Kouta R, et al. Incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. Radiat Oncol. 2011;6(1):130–9.
Tanaka N, Asakawa I, Anai S, Hirayama A, Hasegawa M, Konishi N, et al. Periodical assessment of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity in patients who underwent prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy. Radiat Oncol. 2013;8(1):25.
Thiruchelvam N, Cruz F, Kirby M, Tubaro A, Chapple CR, Sievert K-D. A review of detrusor overactivity and the overactive bladder after radical prostate cancer treatment. BJU Int. 2015 Dec;116(6):853–61.
Van Gellekom MPR, Moerland MA, Van Vulpen M, Wijrdeman HK, Battermann JJ. Quality of life of patients after permanent prostate brachytherapy in relation to dosimetry. Int J Radiat Oncol. 2005 Nov;63(3):772–80.
Van Patten CL, de Boer JG, Tomlinson Guns ES. Diet and Dietary Supplement Intervention Trials for the Prevention of Prostate Cancer Recurrence: A Review of the Randomized Controlled Trial Evidence. J Urol. 2008 Dec;180(6):2314–22.
World Cancer Research Fund International. Continuous Update Project report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Prostate Cancer [Internet]. 2014. Available from: www.wcrf.org/sites/default/files/Prostate-Cancer-2014-Report.pdf
Yahya N, Ebert MA, Bulsara M, Haworth A, Kennedy A, Joseph DJ, et al. Dosimetry, clinical factors and medication intake influencing urinary symptoms after prostate radiotherapy: An analysis of data from the RADAR prostate radiotherapy trial. Radiother Oncol. 2015 Jul;116(1):112–8.