This fact sheet is for men who are thinking about having hormone therapy, or are already receiving hormone therapy to treat their prostate cancer.
Last updated: June 2016 To be reviewed: June 2019
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Ahmed HU, Zacharakis E, Dudderidge T, Armitage JN, Scott R, Calleary J, et al. High-intensity-focused ultrasound in the treatment of primary prostate cancer: the first UK series. Br J Cancer. 2009 Jun 9;101(1):19–26.
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Bolla M, De Reijke TM, Van Tienhoven G, Van den Bergh AC, Oddens J, Poortmans PM, et al. Duration of androgen suppression in the treatment of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(24):2516–27.
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Cheung AS, Zajac JD, Grossmann M. Muscle and bone effects of androgen deprivation therapy: current and emerging therapies. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014 Sep 17;21(5):R371–94.
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Electronic Medicines Compendium. Prostap 3 DCS - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) [cited 2016 Jun 2]. Available from: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/24680
Elliott S, Latini DM, Walker LM, Wassersug R, Robinson JW. Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Recommendations to Improve Patient and Partner Quality of Life: Improving Life on ADT. J Sex Med. 2010 Sep;7(9):2996–3010.
Gardner JR, Livingston PM, Fraser SF. Effects of Exercise on Treatment-Related Adverse Effects for Patients With Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen-Deprivation Therapy: A Systematic Review. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Feb 1;32(4):335–46.
Grossmann M, Hamilton EJ, Gilfillan C, Bolton D, Joon DL, Zajac JD. Bone and metabolic health in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer who are receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Med J Aust. 2011;194(6):301–6.
Gruca D, Bacher P, Tunn U. Safety and tolerability of intermittent androgen deprivation therapy: A literature review: IAD therapy in prostate cancer. Int J Urol. 2012 Jul;19(7):614–25.
Haliloglu A, Baltaci S, Yaman O. Penile length changes in men treated with androgen suppression plus radiation therapy for local or locally advanced prostate cancer. J Urol. 2007 Jan;177(1):128–30.
Haseen F, Murray LJ, Cardwell CR, O’Sullivan JM, Cantwell MM. The effect of androgen deprivation therapy on body composition in men with prostate cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cancer Surviv. 2010 Jun 1;4(2):128–39.
Higano CS. Side effects of androgen deprivation therapy: monitoring and minimizing toxicity. Urology. 2003;61(2):32–8.
Isbarn H, Pinthus JH, Marks LS, Montorsi F, Morales A, Morgentaler A, et al. Testosterone and Prostate Cancer: Revisiting Old Paradigms. Eur Urol. 2009 Jul;56(1):48–56.
Jespersen CG, Nørgaard M, Borre M. Androgen-deprivation Therapy in Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke: A Nationwide Danish Population-based Cohort Study. Eur Urol. 2014 Apr;65(4):704–9.
Keogh JWL, MacLeod RD. Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Functional Performance, Quality of Life, and Fatigue Benefits of Exercise for Prostate Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012 Jan;43(1):96–110.
Klotz L, Boccon-Gibod L, Shore ND, Andreou C, Persson B-E, Cantor P, et al. The efficacy and safety of degarelix: a 12-month, comparative, randomized, open-label, parallel-group phase III study in patients with prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2008 Dec;102(11):1531–8.
Kumar RJ. Adverse events associated with hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. Rev Urol. 2005;7(Suppl 5):S37.
Kunath F, Grobe HR, Rücker G, Motschall E, Antes G, Dahm P, et al. Non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy compared with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists or surgical castration monotherapy for advanced prostate cancer (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(6).
Loblaw DA, Virgo KS, Nam R, Somerfield MR, Ben-Josef E, Mendelson DS, et al. Initial Hormonal Management of Androgen-Sensitive Metastatic, Recurrent, or Progressive Prostate Cancer: 2007 Update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology Practice Guideline. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Apr 20;25(12):1596–605.
Magnan S, Zarychanski R, Pilote L, Bernier L, Shemilt M, Vigneault E, et al. Intermittent vs Continuous Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Oncol. 2015 Sep 17;1–10.
Mason MD, Parulekar WR, Sydes MR, Brundage M, Kirkbride P, Gospodarowicz M, et al. Final Report of the Intergroup Randomized Study of Combined Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Plus Radiotherapy Versus Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Alone in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer. J Clin Oncol [Internet]. 2015
Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Briers E, Bolla M, Cornford P, De Santis M, et al. Guidelines on prostate cancer. European Association of Urology; 2016.
Mottet N, Prayer-Galetti T, Hammerer P, Kattan MW, Tunn U. Optimizing outcomes and quality of life in the hormonal treatment of prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2006 Jul;98(1):20–7.
Murphy R, Wassersug R, Dechman G. The role of exercise in managing the adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer. Phys Ther Rev. 2011 Aug 1;16(4):269–77.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate Cancer: diagnosis and treatment. Full guideline 175. 2014.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Osteoporosis: fragility fracture. Clinical guideline 146.
Parahoo K, McDonough S, McCaughan E, Noyes J, Semple C, Halstead EJ, et al. Psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer. In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013
Saylor PJ, Smith MR. Metabolic Complications of Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer. J Urol. 2013 Jan;189(1):S34–44.
Schmidt-Hansen M, Hoskin P, Kirkbride P, Hasler E, Bromham N. Hormone and Radiotherapy versus Hormone or Radiotherapy Alone for Non-metastatic Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review with Meta-analyses. Clin Oncol. 2014 Oct;26(10):e21–46.
Shahinian VB, Kuo Y-F, Freeman JL, Goodwin JS. Risk of the ‘androgen deprivation syndrome’ in men receiving androgen deprivation for prostate cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(4):465–71.
Shore ND, Abrahamsson P-A, Anderson J, Crawford ED, Lange P. New considerations for ADT in advanced prostate cancer and the emerging role of GnRH antagonists. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013;16(1):7–15.
Silva FC da, Silva FMC da, Gonçalves F, Santos A, Kliment J, Whelan P, et al. Locally Advanced and Metastatic Prostate Cancer Treated with Intermittent Androgen Monotherapy or Maximal Androgen Blockade: Results from a Randomised Phase 3 Study by the South European Uroncological Group. Eur Urol. 2014 Aug;66(2):232–9.
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Storey DJ, McLaren DB, Atkinson MA, Butcher I, Frew LC, Smyth JF, et al. Clinically relevant fatigue in men with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer on long-term androgen deprivation therapy. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(6):1542–9.
Warde P, Mason M, Ding K, Kirkbride P, Brundage M, Cowan R, et al. Combined androgen deprivation therapy and radiation therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: a randomised, phase 3 trial. The Lancet. 2011 Dec;378(9809):2104–11.
White ID, Wilson J, Aslet P, Baxter AB, Birtle A, Challacombe B, et al. Development of UK guidance on the management of erectile dysfunction resulting from radical radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Int J Clin Pract. 2015 Jan;69(1):106–23.
Widmark A, Klepp O, Solberg A, Damber J-E, Angelsen A, Fransson P, et al. Endocrine treatment, with or without radiotherapy, in locally advanced prostate cancer (SPCG-7/SFUO-3): an open randomised phase III trial. Lancet. 2009 Jan 24;373(9660):301–8.
Zhao J, Zhu S, Sun L, Meng F, Zhao L, Zhao Y, et al. Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Is Associated with Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Observational Studies. Kyprianou N, editor. PLoS ONE. 2014 Sep 29;9(9):e107516.
This fact sheet is for men who have been diagnosed with locally advanced prostate cancer - cancer that's spread to the area just outside the prostate gland. It explains what locally advanced prostate cancer is, what your test results mean, and the treatments available.
This fact sheet is for men who have been diagnosed with advanced (metastatic) prostate cancer - cancer that has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body. It explains what advanced prostate cancer is, what your test results mean, and the treatments available.