This booklet is for men who want to know more about a non-cancerous condition called an enlarged prostate. It explains the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of an enlarged prostate.

Last updated: August 2015
To be reviewed: August 2017


  • American Urological Association. 2003 (updated 2006). Guideline on the management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH).
  • De la Rosette J, Alivizatos G, Madersbacher S et al. Guidelines on benign prostatic hyperplasia. European Association of Urology 2008.
  • Electronic medicines compendium. Summary of product characteristics: Avodart.
  • Engeler DS, Schwab C, Neyer M et al. Bipolar versus monopolar TURP: a prospective controlled study at two urology centers. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 2010;13: 285–291.
  • Hammadeh MY, Madaan S, Hines J, et al. 5-year outcome of a prospective randomized trial to compare transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate and standard transurethral resection. Urology 2003; 61: 1166-1171
  • Kaplan ST. Update on the American Urological Association Guidelines for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Reviews in Urology. 2006; 8(Supp 4): S10-S17.
  • Konwar R, Chattopadhyay N, Bid HK. Genetic polymorphism and pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int. 2008 Aug 5;102(5):536-44.
  • Martin DJ, Mulhall JP. Enlarging the scope of managing benign prostatic hyperplasia: addressing sexual function and quality of life. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2005; 59:579-90.
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Lower urinary tract symptoms. The management of lower urinary tract symptoms in men. 2010.
  • Neuhouser ML, Kristal AR, Penson DF. Steroid hormones and hormone-related genetic and lifestyle characteristics as risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia: review of epidemiologic literature. Urology 2004; 64: 201-11
  • Nickel JC, Barkin J, Koch C et al. Finasteride monotherapy maintains stable lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia following cessation of alpha blockers. Can Urol Assoc J. 2008; 2:16-21.
  • Oelke M, Bachmann A, Descazeaud A et al. Guidelines on conservative treatment of non-neurogenic male LUTS. European Association of Urology 2010.
  • Oelke M, Bachmann A, Descazeaud A et al. Guidelines on the management of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), incl. Benign Prostatic Obstruction (BPO). European Association of Urology 2012.
  • Oelke M, Bachmann A, Descazeaud A et al. Guidelines on treatment of non-neurogenic male LUTS. European Association of Urology 2011.
  • Parsons JK. Modifiable risk factors for benign prostatichyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms: new approaches to old problems. Journal of Urology. 2007; 178: 395-40
  • Parsons JK. Sarma AV. McVary K. Wei JT. Obesity and benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical connections, emerging etiological paradigms and future directions. Journal of Urology 2009; 182 (Supp 6):S27-31
  • Pearson JD, Lei HH, Beaty TH et al. Familial aggregation of bothersome benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms. Urology 2003; 61: 781–5
  • Roehrborn CG. BPH progression: concept and key learning from MTOPS, ALTESS, COMBAT, and ALF-ONE. BJU International. 2008; 101 (supp 3): 17-21.
  • Sanda MG, Beaty TH, Stutzman RE, Childs B, Walsh PC. Genetic susceptibility of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol 1994; 152: 115–9
  • Sarma AV. Parsons JK. McVary K. Wei JT. Diabetes and benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms--what do we know?. Journal of Urology 2009; 182 (supp 6): S32-7.
  • Schenk JM, Kristal AR, Arnold KB et al. Association of systematic benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. American Journal of Epidemiology 2011: 173 (12): 1419-1428.
  • Tacklind J, Fink HA, MacDonald R et al. Finasteride for benign prostatic hyperplasia (review). The Cochrane Collaboration 2012.
  • Trueman P, Hood SC, Nayak USL et al. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms and self-reported diagnosed ‘benign prostatic hyperplasia’, and their effect on quality of life in a community-based survey of men in the UK. BJU Int 1999; 83: 410-415.
  • Tyson MD, Lerner LB. Safety of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate in anticoagulated patients. Journal of Endourology 2009;23(8):1343-6.
  • Wei JT, Calhoun E, Jacobsen SJ. Urologic diseases in America project: benign prostatic hyperplasia. Journal of Urology 2005; 173: 1256-1261.
  • Wilt TJ, Dow JN. Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Part 1 – Diagnosis. BJU Int. 2008; 336: 146-149.
  • Young JM, Muscatello DJ, Ward JF. Are men with lower urinary tract symptoms at increased risk of prostate cancer? A systematic review and critique of the available evidence. BJU Int 2000; 85:1037-1048.

Order printed copies of this publication

Before you order we would like to know who you are, and why you are ordering printed copies.

Download digital versions of this publication