This fact sheet is for men who are thinking about having hormone therapy, or are already receiving hormone therapy to treat their prostate cancer.

Last updated: March 2014
To be reviewed: March 2016


  • Alibhai SMH, Gogov S, Alllibhai Z. Long-term side effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with non-metastatic prostate cancer: a systematic literature review. Critical reviews in Oncology/Hematology 60 (2006) 201-215
  • Azoulay L, Yin H, Benayoun S et al. Androgen-Deprivation Therapy and the Risk of Stroke in Patients With Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol. 2011
  • Couper, JW, Bloch S, Love A, Duchesne G, Macvean M and Kissane DW. The psychosocial impact of prostate cancer on patients and their partners. Medical Journal of Australia. 2006;185(8) 428-432
  • Di Lorenzo G, Autorino R, Perdona S et al. Management of gynaecomastia in patients with prostate cancer: a systematic review. Lancet Oncology 2005; 6: 972-79.
  • Eastham JA. Bone health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol 2007; 177:17-24
  • Grossman M, Hamilton EJ, Gilfillan C et al. Bone and metabolic health in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer who are receiving androgen deprivation therapy. MJA. 2011;194(6):301-306.
  • Haliloglu A, Baltaci S, and Yaman O. Penile Length Changes in Men Treated With Androgen Suppression Plus Radiation Therapy for Local or Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer. The Journal of Urology 2007:77,128-130
  • Haseen F, Murray LJ, Cardwell CR, O'Sullivan JM, Cantwell MM. The effect of androgen deprivation therapy on body composition in men with prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cancer Surviv 2010 Jun;4(2):128-39.
  • Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J et al. Guidelines on prostate cancer. European Association of Urology. 2013
  • Husson O, Mols F & van de Poll-Franse LV. The relation between information provision and health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression among cancer survivors: a systematic review. Annals of Oncology. 2011;22(4):761-72
  • Irani J, Salomon L, Oba R et al. Efficacy of venlafaxine, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and cyproterone acetate for the treatment of vasomotor hot flushes in men taking gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues for prostate cancer: a double-blind, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:147-154.
  • Jamadar RJ, Winters MJ & Maki PM. Cognitive changes associated with ADT: a review of the Literature. Asian Journal of Andrology. 2012;14:232–238
  • Klotz L, Boccon-Gibod L, Shore N D, Andreou C P, Bo-Eric C, Jensen J, Olesen T K, Schroder F H. The efficacy and safety of degarelix: a 12-month, comparative, randomized, open-bale, parallel-group phase III study in patients with prostate cancer. BJU International. 2008 102, 1531-1538.
  • Kumar S, Shelley M, Harrison C et al. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormone therapy for localised and locally advanced prostate cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006019
  • Mishra SI, Scherer RW, Snyder C, Geigle PM, Berlanstein DR, Topaloglu O. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for people with cancer during active treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;8:CD008465
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment. Clinical guideline. Full guideline. January 2014.
  • Nelson CJ, Lee JS, Gamboa MC et al. Cognitive effects of hormone therapy in men with prostate cancer: a review. Cancer 2008;113:1097-106.
  • Parahoo K, McCaughan E, Noyes J, McDonough S. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer: a systematic review. Intervention Protocal. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010, Issue ^. Art No.: CD008529
  • Schmitt B, Bennett C, Seidenfeld J et al. Maximal androgen blockade for advanced prostate cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1999, Issue 2.
  • Schroder F, Crawford ED, Axcona K, et al. Androgen deprivation therapy: Past, present and future. BJU International. 2012;109(6):1-12
  • Shahinian VB, Yong-Fang K, Freeman JL, et al. Risk of the “androgen deprivation syndrome” in men receiving androgen deprivation for prostate cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(4)
  • Shore ND, Abrahamsson P-A, Anderson J, Crawford ED, Lange P. New considerations for ADT in advanced prostate cancer and the emerging role of GnRH antagonists. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013 Mar;16(1):7–15
  • Stone P, Hardy J, Huddart R et al. Fatigue in patients with prostate cancer receiving hormone therapy. European journal of cancer 2000; 36(9): 1134-41.
  • Warde P, Mason M, Ding K et al. Combined androgen deprivation therapy and radiation therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: a randomised, phase 3 trial. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 3 November 2011 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61095-7
  • Widmark A, Klepp O, Solberg A et al. Endocrine treatment, with or without radiotherapy, in locally advanced prostate cancer (SPCG-7/SFUO-3): an open randomised phase III trial. The Lancet 2008, Volume 373, Issue 9660, Pages 301 - 308, 24
  • Wilkins D. Untold problems: A review of the essential issues in the mental health of men and boys. Men’s Health Forum. January 2010.

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