What changes should I look out for?

Colin SM, Metcalfe C, Donovan J, Lane JA, Davis M, Neal D, Hamdy F, Martin RM. Associations of lower urinary tract symptoms with prostate-specific antigen levels, and screen detected localized and advanced prostate cancer: a case-control study nested within the UK based population ProtecT (Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment) study. BJU Int, 2008, 102 (10):1400-140

Popiolek M, et al. Natural History of Early, Localized Prostate Cancer: A Final Report from Three Decades of Follow-up. Eur Urol (2012). Published online 13 October 2012

Johansson J-E, Andren O, Andersson S O, Dickman P W, Holmberg L, Magnuson A, Adami H O. Natural History of Early Localised Prostate Cancer, JAMA 2004; 291 (22) 2713-2719

Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme information for primary care; PSA testing in asymptomatic men. Evidence document January 2010

What is an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia)?

Kaplan ST. Update on the American Urological Association Guidelines for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Reviews in Urology. 2006; 8(Supp 4): S10-S17.

Roehrborn CG. BPH progression: concept and key learning from MTOPS, ALTESS, COMBAT, and ALF-ONE. BJU International. 2008; 101 (supp 3): 17-21.

Trueman P, Hood SC, Nayak US, Mrazek MF. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms and self-reported diagnosed 'benign prostatic hyperplasia', and their effect on quality of life in a community-based survey of men in the UK. BJU Int 1999; 83: 410-415.

Wei JT, Calhoun E, Jacobsen SJ. Urologic diseases in America project: benign prostatic hyperplasia. Journal of Urology 2005; 173: 1256-1261.

World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington DC:AICR, 2007

What is prostate cancer?
Cancer Statistics registrations: Registrations of cancer diagnosed in 2007, England Series MB1 no.38. 2010, London: National Statistics

ISD Online Northern Ireland Cancer Registry. Cancer Incidence and Mortality. 2010

Information and Statistics Division, NHS Scotland. 2010 Office for National Statistics,

Cancer Research UK website: www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerstats/types/prostate/incidence. Accessed October 2012

Family history
Dianat SS, Margreiter M, Eckersberger E, Finkelstein J, Kuehas F, Herwig R, Ayati M, Lepor H, Djavan B. Gene polymorphisms and prostate cancer: the evidence 2009 BJUI: 104 1560-1572

Edwards SM, Kote-Jarai Z, Meitz J, Hamoudi R, Hope Q, Osin P, Jackson R, Southgate C, Singh R, Falconer A, Dearnaley DP, Ardern-Jones A, Murkin A, Dowe A, Kelly J, Williams S, Oram R, Stevens M, Teare DM, Ponder BA, Gayther SA,

Easton DF, Eeles RA. Two percent of men with early-onset prostate cancer harbour germline mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Am J Hum Genet, 2003, 72(1):1-12.
Elo JP and Visakorpi T.  Molecular genetics of prostate cancer. Ann Med 2001;33(2):130-41

Johns LE, Houlston RS. A systematic review and meta-analysis of familial prostate cancer risk. BJU International 2003; 91: 789-794.

Mitra AV, Bancroft EK, Barbachano Y, Page EC, Foster CS, Jameson C, Mitchell G, Lindeman GJ, Stapleton A, Suthers G, Evans DG, Cruger D, Blanco I, Mercer C, Kirk J, Maehle L, Hodgson S, Walker L, Izatt L, Douglas F, Tucker K, Eeles RA et al. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study. BJU Int. 2010 Sep 14.

Thompson D, Easton DF. Cancer Incidence in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst, 2002, 94(18):1358-1365.
Ethnicity

Ben-Shlomo Y, Evans S, Ibrahim F, Patel B, Anson K, Chinegwundoh F, Corbishley C, Dorling D, Thomas B, Gillatt D, Kirby R, Muir G, Nargund V, Popert R, Metcalfe C, Persad R; PROCESS study group. The Risk of Prostate Cancer amongst Black Men in the United Kingdom: The PROCESS Cohort Study. Eur Urol 2008; 53(1):99-105

Hooker S, Hernandez W, Chen H, Robbins C, Torres JB, Ahaghotu C, Carpten J, Kittles RA. Replication of prostate cancer risk loci on 8q24, 11q13, 17q12, 19q33, and Xp11 in African Americans Prostate 2010 Feb 15;70(3):270-6).

Lavender NA, Benford ML, VanCleave TT, Brock GN, Kittles RA, Moore JH, Hein DW, Kidd LC. Examination of polymorphic glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, tobacco smoking and prostate cancer risk among Men of African Descent: A case-control study BMC Cancer 2009 9: 397)

Mason TE, Ricks-Santi L, Chen W, Apprey V, Joykutty J, Ahaghotu C, Kittles R, Bonney G, Dunston GM.Association of CD14 variant with prostate cancer in African American men Prostate 2010 Feb 15;70(3):262-9)

Metcalfe C, Evans S, Ibrahim F, Patel B, Anson K, Chinegwundoh F, Corbishley C, Gillatt D, Kirby R, Muir G, Nargund V, Popert R, Persad R, Ben-Shlomo Y Pathways to diagnosis for black men and white men found to have prostate cancer: the PROCESS cohort study. British Journal of Cancer (2008)

National Cancer Intelligent Network. Cancer incidence and survival by major ethnic group, England, 2002-2006

Wang Y, Ray AM, Johnson EK, Zuhlke KA, Cooney KA, Lange EM. Evidence for an association between prostate cancer and chromosome 8q24 and 10q11 genetic variants in African American men: The flint men's health study. Prostate 2010 Aug 17).

Xu J, Kibel AS, Hu JJ, Turner AR, Pruett K, Zheng SL, Sun J, Isaacs SD, Wiley KE, Kim ST, Hsu FC, Wu W, Torti FM, Walsh PC, Chang BL, Isaacs WB.Prostate cancer risk associated loci in African Americans Cancer Epidemiol Markers Prev 2009; 18(7) 2145-49).

Lifestyle

Allen NE, Key TJ, Appleby PN et al. Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Br J Cancer. 2008 May 6;98(9):1574-81.

Gao X, LaValley MP, Tucker KL Prospective Studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: A meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97(23):1768-77

Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Platz EA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Risk factors for prostate cancer incidence and progression in the health professionals follow-up study. Int.J Cancer 2007; 121 (7):1571-8

Ma RW, Chapman K  A systematic review of the effect of diet in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.  Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics : the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association [2009, 22(3):187-99; quiz 200-2]

Orsini N, Bellocco R, Bottai M, Pagano M, Andersson SO, Johansson JE, Giovannucci E, Wolk A. A prospective study of lifetime physical activity and prostate cancer incidence and mortality Br J Cancer. 2009 Dec 1;101(11):1932-8. Epub 2009 Oct 27.

World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington DC:AICR, 2007

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

Crawford E D. Understanding the Epidemiology, Natural History and Key Pathways Involved in Prostate Cancer. 2009 Urology; 73:5A

Johansson J-E, Andren O, Andersson S O, Dickman P W, Holmberg L, Magnuson A, Adami H O. Natural History of Early Localised Prostate Cancer, JAMA 2004; 291 (22) 2713-2719

What will the test results tell me?
NICE. Guideline for management of lower urinary tract symptoms in men. 2010 

Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme information for primary care; PSA testing in asymptomatic men. Evidence document January 2010