This fact sheet is for men who have been diagnosed with locally advanced prostate cancer – cancer that's spread to the area just outside the prostate gland. It explains what locally advanced prostate cancer is, what your test results mean, and the treatment options available.

References  

  • Berney DM. The case for modifying the Gleason grading system. BJU Int. 2007;100(4):725–726.
  • Bolla M, van Poppel H, Tombal B, Vekemans K, Da Pozzo L, de Reijke TM, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer: long-term results of a randomised controlled trial (EORTC trial 22911). Lancet. 2012 Dec 8;380(9858):2018–27.
  • British Uro-oncology Group (BUG), British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS). Multi-disciplinary Team (MDT) Guidance for Managing Prostate Cancer. 2013.
  • Chan JM, Van Blarigan EL, Kenfield SA. What should we tell prostate cancer patients about (secondary) prevention?: Curr Opin Urol. 2014 May;24(3):318–23.
  • Denham JW, Steigler A, Lamb DS, Joseph D, Turner S, Matthews J, et al. Short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: 10-year data from the TROG 96.01 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12.
  • Epstein JI, Allsbrook Jr WC, Amin MB, Egevad LL, Committee IG, others. The 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) consensus conference on Gleason grading of prostatic carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29(9):1228–1242.
  • Epstein JI, Zelefsky MJ, Sjoberg DD, Nelson JB, Egevad L, Magi-Galluzzi C, et al. A Contemporary Prostate Cancer Grading System: A Validated Alternative to the Gleason Score. Eur Urol [Internet]. 2015 Jul [cited 2015 Nov 27]; Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0302283815005576
  • Gardner JR, Livingston PM, Fraser SF. Effects of Exercise on Treatment-Related Adverse Effects for Patients With Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen-Deprivation Therapy: A Systematic Review. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Feb 1;32(4):335–46.
  • Hechtman LM. Clinical Naturopathic Medicine [Internet]. Harcourt Publishers Group (Australia); 2014 [cited 2015 Jul 21]. 1610 p. Available from: http://www.bookdepository.com/Clinical-Naturopathic-Medicine-Leah-Hechtman/9780729541923
  • Hegarty J, Walsh E, Harry Comber, Tony Fitzgerald, Kazer MW. Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting for prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;
  • Henson CC, Burden S, Davidson SE, Lal S. Nutritional interventions for reducing gastrointestinal toxicity in adults undergoing radical pelvic radiotherapy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 (11). Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD009896.pub2
  • Hoffman KE, Nguyen PL, Chen M-H, Chen RC, Choueiri TK, Hu JC, et al. Recommendations for Post-Prostatectomy Radiation Therapy in the United States Before and After the Presentation of Randomized Trials. J Urol. 2011 Jan;185(1):116–20.
  • Husson O, Mols F, Poll-Franse LV van de. The relation between information provision and health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression among cancer survivors: a systematic review. Ann Oncol. 2010 Sep 24;mdq413.
  • Keogh JWL, MacLeod RD. Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Functional Performance, Quality of Life, and Fatigue Benefits of Exercise for Prostate Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012 Jan;43(1):96–110.
  • Larkin D, Lopez V, Aromataris E. Managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer: A systematic review of non-pharmacological interventions: Managing prostate cancer fatigue. Int J Nurs Pract. 2014 Oct;20(5):549–60.
  • Mason MD, Parulekar WR, Sydes MR, Brundage M, Kirkbride P, Gospodarowicz M, et al. Final Report of the Intergroup Randomized Study of Combined Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Plus Radiotherapy Versus Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Alone in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer. J Clin Oncol [Internet]. 2015 Feb 17 [cited 2015 May 8]; Available from: http://jco.ascopubs.org/cgi/doi/10.1200/JCO.2014.57.7510
  • McMahon CJ, Rofsky NM, Pedrosa I. Lymphatic metastases from pelvic tumors: anatomic classification, characterization, and staging. Radiology. 2010;254(1):31.
  • Mishra SI, Scherer RW, Geigle PM, Berlanstein DR, Topaloglu O, Gotay CC, et al. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;8:CD007566.
  • Moch H, Humphrey PA, Ulbright TM, Reuter VE, editors. WHO Classification of tumours of the urinary system and male genital organs [Internet]. 4th ed. Vol. 8. World Health Organization; 2016. Available from: http://apps.who.int/bookorders/anglais/detart1.jsp?codlan=1&codcol=70&codcch=4008
  • Mottet N, Bellmunt J, Briers E, Bolla M, Cornford P, De Santis M, et al. Guidelines on prostate cancer. European Association of Urology; 2016.
  • Murphy R, Wassersug R, Dechman G. The role of exercise in managing the adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer. Phys Ther Rev. 2011 Aug 1;16(4):269–77
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate Cancer: diagnosis and treatment. Full guideline 175. 2014.
  • Payne, H. Management of locally advanced prostate cancer. Asian J Androl. 2009;11:81–7.
  • Pettersson A, Johansson B, Persson C, Berglund A, Turesson I. Effects of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life: A randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol. 2012 Jun;103(3):333–40.
  • Price CP, Allard J, Davies G, Dawnay A, Duffy MJ, France M, et al. Pre-and post-analytical factors that may influence use of serum prostate specific antigen and its isoforms in a screening programme for prostate cancer. Ann Clin Biochem. 2001;38(3):188–216.
  • Public Health England. Prostate cancer risk management programme (PCRMP): benefits and risks of PSA testing [Internet]. GOV.UK; 2016. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/prostate-cancer-risk-management-programme-psa-test-benefits-and-risks/prostate-cancer-risk-management-programme-pcrmp-benefits-and-risks-of-psa-testing
  • Tillisch K. Complementary and alternative medicine for functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gut. 2006 May 1;55(5):593–6.
  • Trottier G, Boström PJ, Lawrentschuk N, Fleshner NE. Nutraceuticals and prostate cancer prevention: a current review. Nat Rev Urol. 2009 Dec 8;7(1):21–30.
  • Van Patten CL, de Boer JG, Tomlinson Guns ES. Diet and Dietary Supplement Intervention Trials for the Prevention of Prostate Cancer Recurrence: A Review of the Randomized Controlled Trial Evidence. J Urol. 2008 Dec;180(6):2314–22.
  • Wedlake LJ, Shaw C, Whelan K, Andreyev HJN. Systematic review: the efficacy of nutritional interventions to counteract acute gastrointestinal toxicity during therapeutic pelvic radiotherapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jun;37(11):1046–56.
  • Yoshioka Y, Suzuki O, Otani Y, Yoshida K, Nose T, Ogawa K. High-dose-rate brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer: technique, rationale and perspective. J Contemp Brachytherapy. 2014;1:91–8.
  • Yoshioka Y, Suzuki O, Isohashi F, Seo Y, Okubo H, Yamaguchi H, et al. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Clinical Results for a Median 8-Year Follow-Up. Int J Radiat Oncol. 2016 Mar;94(4):675–82.
  • Zaorsky NG, Doyle LA, Yamoah K, Andrel JA, Trabulsi EJ, Hurwitz MD, et al. High dose rate brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer: A systematic review. Cancer Treat Rev. 2014 Apr;40(3):414–25

About this publication  

Updated: September 2016 | Due for Review: September 2018

Order printed copies of this publication

Before you order we would like to know who you are, and why you are ordering printed copies.

Download digital versions of this publication