This fact sheet is for men who have been offered external beam radiotherapy to treat their prostate cancer.
Last updated: June 2016 To be reviewed: June 2018
Andreyev JN, Davidson SE, Gillespie C, et al. Practice guidance on the management of acute andchronic gastrointestinal problems arising as a result of treatment for cancer. Gut 2012;61:179–92.
Bauer RM, Gozzi C, Hubner W, et al. Contemporary management of postprostatectomy incontinence. Eur Urol 2011;59:985–96.
Berkley FJ. Managing the adverse effects of radiation therapy. Am Fam Physician 2010;82(4):381–88.
Bolla M, van Poppel H, Tombal B, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer: long-term results of a randomised controlled trial (EORTC trial 22911). Lancet 2012;366:572–78.
Chen LN, Suy S, Uhm S, et al. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for clinically localized prostate cancer: the Georgetown University experience. Radiation Oncol 2013;8:58.
Dearnaley D, Syndikus I, Sumo G, et al. Conventional versus hypofractionated high-dose intensity modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: preliminary safety results from the CHHiP randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:43–54.
Denham JW, Steigler A, Lamb DS, et al. Short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: 10-year data from the TROG 96.01 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 2011;12:451.
Deville C, Both S, Hwang WT, et al. Clinical toxicities and dosimetric parameters after whole-pelvis versus prostate-only intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010;78(3):763–72.
Fiorino C, Di Muzio N, Broggi S, et al. Evidence of limited motion of the prostate by carefully emptying the rectum as assessed by daily MVCT image guidance with helical tomotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008;71(2):611–17.
Having radiotherapy to the prostate – preparation for treatment (No.56). University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, reviewed May 2013.
High dose rate brachytherapy in combination with external-beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Interventional Procedure Guidance 174. May 2006.
Hoskin PJ, Rojas AM, Ostler PJ, et al. Quality of life after radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer: longitudinal study from a randomised trial of external beam radiotherapy alone or in combination with high dose rate brachytherapy. Clin Oncol 2013;25(5):321–27.
Koontz BF, Lee WR. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer. [Review]. Surg Oncol Clin North Am 2013;22(3):483–94.
Kulik A, Dąbkowski M. Prostate cancer radiotherapy. Contemp Oncol 2011;15(5):317–22.
Lawenda BD, Kelly KM, Ladas EJ, et al. Should supplemental antioxidant administration be avoided during chemotherapy and radiation therapy? J Natl Cancer Inst 2008;100:773–83.
Lumen N, Ost P, Van Praet C, et al. Developments in external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Urol 2013;82(1):510.
McCaughan E, McSorley O, Prue G, et al. Quality of life in men receiving radiotherapy and neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation for prostate cancer: results from a prospective longitudinal study. J Adv Nurs 2012;69(1):53–65.
Michalski JM, Yan Y, Watkins-Bruner D, et al. Preliminary toxicity analysis of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy versus intensity modulated radiation therapy on the high-dose arm of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 prostate cancer trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2013;87(5):932–38.
Mohammed N, Kestin L, Ghilezan M, et al. Comparison of acute and late toxicities for three modern high-dose radiation treatment techniques for localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;82(1):204–12.
Mohan R, Schellhammer PF. Treatment options for localized prostate cancer. Am Fam Physician2011;84(4):413–20.
Moss RW. Do antioxidants interfere with radiation therapy for cancer? [Review] Integrative Cancer Therapies 2007;6(3):281–92.
Mottet N, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J, et al. Guidelines on prostate cancer. European Association of Urology. April 2014.
Mottet N, Peneau M, Mazeron JJ, et al. Addition of radiotherapy to long-term androgen deprivation in locally advanced prostate cancer: An open randomised phase 3 trial. Eur Urol 2012;62(2):213–19.
Multi-disciplinary team (MDT) guidance for managing prostate cancer. British Uro-oncology Group, British Association of Urological Surgeons: Section of Oncology. September 2013.
Nakayama A, Alladin KP, Igbokwe O, White JD. Systematic review: generatingevidence-basedguidelines on the concurrent use of dietaryantioxidants and chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Cancer Invest 2011;29(10):655–67.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment. Clinical guideline. Full guideline. January 2014.
Parsons BA, Evans S, Wright MP. Prostate cancer and urinary incontinence. Maturitas 2009;63:323–28.
Proton therapy is coming to the UK, but what does it mean for patients? Cancer Research UK, September 2013.
Radiotherapy Service in England 2012. Department of Health, September 2012
Schaake W, Wiegman EM, de Groot, et al. The impact of gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity on health related quality of life among irradiated prostate cancer patients. Radiotherapy & Oncol 2014;110(2):284–90.
Schmid MP, Potter R, Bombosch V, et al. Late gastrointestinal and urogenital side-effects after radiotherapy – incidence and prevalence. Subgroup-analysis within the prospective Austrian-German phase II multicenter trial for localized prostate cancer. Radiotherapy & Oncol 2012;104(1):114–18.
Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). Macmillan Cancer Support. www.macmillan.org.uk, last reviewed 1 April 2013.
Tabassum A, Bristow RG, Venkateswaran V. Ingestion of selenium and other antioxidants during prostate cancer radiotherapy: a good thing? Cancer Treatment Reviews 2010;36(3):230–34.
Thompson A, Adamson A, Bahl A, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of chemical and radiation-induced cystitis. J Clin Urol 2014.
Warde P, Mason M, Ding K, et al. Combined androgen deprivation therapy and radiation therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: a randomised, phase 3 trial. The Lancet 2011
Widmark A, Klepp O, Solberg A, et al. Endocrine treatment, with or without radiotherapy, in locally advanced prostate cancer (SPCG-7/SFUO-3): an open randomised phase III trial. The Lancet 2008;373:301–8.
Zelefsky MJ, Levin EJ, Hunt M, et al. Incidence of late rectal and urinary toxicities after three dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008;70(4):1124–29.
Zerbib M, Zelefsky MJ, Higano CS, et al. Conventional treatments of localized prostate cancer. Urology 2008;72(6A):25–35.
This fact sheet is for men who have been diagnosed with localised prostate cancer – cancer that hasn't spread outside the prostate gland. It explains what localised prostate cancer is, what your test results mean, and the treatment options available.
This fact sheet is for men who have been diagnosed with locally advanced prostate cancer - cancer that's spread to the area just outside the prostate gland. It explains what locally advanced prostate cancer is, what your test results mean, and the treatments available.