How will prostate cancer affect my sex life?

Althof SE, Leibum SR, Chevret-Measson M et al. Psychological and interpersonal dimensions of sexual function and dysfunction. J Sexual Med 2005;2:793-800

Arrington MI. “I don’t want to be an artificial man’: Narrative reconstruction of sexuality among prostate cancer survivors. Sexuality Cancer 2003;Spring:30-58.

Bertero C. Altered sexual patterns after treatment for prostate cancer. Cancer Pract 2001;9:245-51

Ervik B, Asplund K. Dealing with a troublesome body: A qualitative interview study of men’s experiences living with prostate cancer treated with endocrine therapy. European Journal of Oncology Nursing. 2011

Reynolds, EM. Socially constructing sexuality: towards a postmodernist theory of sexual intimacy. Theor Philosop Psychol 1992:12:38-47

Penetrative sex and masturbation

Incrocci, L., Madalinska, J. B., Essink-Bot, M., Van Putten, W. L. J., Koper, P. C. M.,& Schroder, F. H. (2001). Sexual functioning in patients with localized prostate cancer awaiting treatment.Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,27, 353–363.

Monga, U., Kerrigan, A. J., Garber, S., & Monga, T. N. (2001). Pre- and postradiotherapy sexual functioning of prostate cancer patients.Sexuality and Disability,19, 239–252.

Schover LR, Fouladi RT, Warneke CI et al. Defining sexual outcomes after treatment for localised prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2002;95:1773-1785

Schover LR, Fouladi RT, Warneke CL, Neese L, Lein EA, Zippe C et al . The use of treatments for erectile dysfunction among survivors of prostate carcinoma. Cancer, 95, 2397-2407

Schover LR, McKee ALJ. Sexuality rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Oncology [Internet]. 2000 Jan 1 [cited 2013 Jan 14]; Available from: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-53676222.html

Getting treatment and support

Health Service Circular 1999/177. Treatment for Impotence: Patients with Severe Distress. August 1999

Lett C, Tamlyn K, Byers S. Exploring the impact of prostate cancer on men’s sexual well-being. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. Aug 2010

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Prostate cancer. Diagnosis and treatment. NICE clinical guideline 58. 2008

Treatment for Impotence. Health Service Circular; 1999 Jun. Report No.: 1999/148.

Focus on…What to expect at an ED clinic

Reese JB, Keefe FJ, Somers TJ, Abernethy AP. Coping with sexual concerns after cancer: the use of flexible coping. Support Care Cancer. 2010 Jul;18(7):785-800.

Schover LR, McKee ALJ. Sexuality rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Oncology [Internet]. 2000 Jan 1 [cited 2013 Jan 14]; Available from: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-53676222.html

Wespes,E, Amar, I, Eardley, F, Giuliano, D, Hatzichristou, K, Montorsi, F, et al. Guidelines on Male Sexual Dysfunction: Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation [Internet]. European Association of Urology; 2009. Available from: http://www.uroweb.org/gls/pdf/13_Male%20Sexual%20Dysfunction_LR%20II.pdf

Problems getting an erection

Bancroft J, Janssen E, Strong D et al. The relations between mood and sexuality in heterosexual men. Arch Sex Behaviour 2003; 32:217-30

British Society for Sexual Medicine (BSSM) [Internet]. [cited 2013 Jan 14]. Available from: http://www.bssm.org.uk/downloads/default.asp

Mulhall JP. Saving your sex life: A guide for men with prostate cancer. Hilton Publishing; 2008.

Nicolosi A, Laumann E O, Glasser D B, Moreira E D, Paik  A, Gingell C. Sexual behaviour and sexual dysfunctions after the age 40: the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviours. Urology 2004; 64: 991-997

Getting treatment for erection problems

Agarwal PK, Oefelein MG. Testosterone replacement therapy after primary treatment for prostate cancer. J Urol. 2005;173: 533-6.

Baltaci S, K Aydos, A Kosar, K Anafrata. Treating erectile dysfunction with a vacuum tumescence device: a retrospective analysis of acceptance and satisfaction.. Br J Urol 1995; 76:757-760

British Society for Sexual Medicine (BSSM). Guidelines on the management of erectile dysfunction. 2007 [Internet]. [cited 2013 Jan 14]. Available from: http://www.bssm.org.uk/downloads/default.asp

Dorey G, Speakman MJ, Feneley RC, Swinkels A, Dunn CD. Pelvic floor exercises for erectile dysfunction BJU International 2005; 96; 595 – 597

Dutta TC, JF Eid, Vacuum constriction devices for erectile dysfunction: a long-term, prospective study of patients with mild, moderate and severe dysfunction. Urology 1999;54:891-893

First MHRA Anti-Counterfeiting Strategy and new counterfeit reporting hotline launched : MHRA [Internet]. [cited 2013 Jan 15]. Available from: http://www.mhra.gov.uk/NewsCentre/CON2033157

Garcia FJ, Brock G. Current state of penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy. Curr Opin Urol. 2010 May;20(3):234–40.

Goldstein I, Newman L, Baum N, Brooks M, Chaikin L, Goldberg K, McBride A,

Krane RJ. Safety and efficacy outcome of mentor alpha-1 inflatable penile prosthesis implantation for impotence treatment. J Urol 1997;157(3):833-9.

Guidelines on the management of sexual problems in men: the role of androgens [Internet]. British Society for Sexual Medicine; 2010. Available from: http://www.bssm.org.uk/downloads/UK_Guidelines_Androgens_Male_2010.pdf

Isbarn H. Testosterone and prostate cancer: revisiting old paradigms. European Urology 56 (2009) 48-56

Isbarn H, Pinthus JH, Marks LS, Montorsi F, Morales A, Morgentaler A, Schulman C.

Kaufman JM, Graydon RJ. Androgen replacement after curative radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer in hypogonadal men. J Urol. 2004;172:920-2.

Khera M, Bhattacharya RK, Blick G, Kushner H, Nguyen D, Miner MM. Improved Sexual Function with Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Hypogonadal Men: Real-World Data from the Testim Registry in the United States (TRiUS). The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 2011;8(11):3204–13

Levine LA, Dimitriou RJ. Vacuum constriction and external erection devices in erectile dysfunction. Urologic Clinics of North America 2001; 28(2):335-41, ix-x.

McMahon C. Comparison of efficacy, safety and tolerability of on-demand tadalafil and daily dosed tadalafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med 2005;2(3):415-25.

 Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)  www mhra gov uk. Press release: Serious health risk posed by Traditional Chinese Medicine “Herbal Viagra” [Internet]. [cited 2013 Jan 15]. Available from: http://www.mhra.gov.uk/NewsCentre/Pressreleases/CON043905

Montorsi F, Rigatti P, Carmignani G, Corbu C, Campo B, Ordesi G, Breda G, Silvestre P, Giammusso, B, Morgia G, Graziottin A. AMS three-piece inflatable implants for erectile dysfunction: a long-term multi- institutional study in 200 consecutive patients. Eur Urol 2000;37(1):50-5.

Morales A, Black AM, Emerswon LE. Testosterone administration to men with testosterone deficiency syndrome after external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: preliminary observations. BJU Intl. 2008;103:62-4.

MUSE 1000 microgram urethral stick. - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - (eMC) [Internet]. [cited 2013 Jan 14]. Available from: http://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/document.aspx?documentid=22218&docType=SPC

MUSE 250 microgram urethral stick. - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - (eMC) [Internet]. [cited 2013 Jan 15]. Available from: http://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/22220/SPC/MUSE+250+microgram+urethral+stick

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Prostate cancer. Diagnosis and treatment. NICE clinical guideline 58. 2008

Sarosdy MF. Testosterone replacement for hypogonadism after treatment of early prostate cancer with brachytherapy. Cancer. 2007;109:536-41.

Tengs T O, Osgood N D. The link between smoking and impotence: two decades of evidence.  Preventative Medicine 2001; 32 (6): 447-52

The Counterfeiting Superhighway [Internet]. European Alliance of Access to Safe Medicines; 2008. Available from: http://counterfeiting.unicri.it/docs/Counterfeiting%20Superhighway.%20EAASM%202008.pdf

Wespes,E, Amar, I, Eardley, F, Giuliano, D, Hatzichristou, K, Montorsi, F, et al. Guidelines on Male Sexual Dysfunction: Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation [Internet]. European Association of Urology; 2009. Available from: http://www.uroweb.org/gls/pdf/13_Male%20Sexual%20Dysfunction_LR%20II.pdf

WHO | Counterfeit medicines [Internet]. WHO. [cited 2013 Jan 15]. Available from: http://www.who.int/medicines/services/counterfeit/impact/ImpactF_S/en/index.html

Your desire for sex (libido)

Bancroft J, Janssen E, Strong D et al. The relations between mood and sexuality in heterosexual men. Arch Sex Behaviour 2003; 32:217-30

Beck AM, Robinson JW, Carlson LE. Sexual intimacy in heterosexual couples after prostate cancer treatment: What we know and what we still need to learn. Urol. Oncol. 2009 Apr;27(2):137–43.

Clark JA, Wray N, Brody B, Ashton C, Giesler B, Watkins H. Dimensions of quality of life expressed by men treated for metastatic prostate cancer. Soc Sci Med. 1997 Oct;45(8):1299-309.

Goldenberg SL, Bruchovsky N, Gleave ME, Sullivan LD, Akakura K. Intermittent androgen suppression in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary report. Urology 1995; 45 (5): 839 -844

Hervouet S, Savard J, Simard S, Ivers H, Laverdie`re J, Vigneault E et al. Psychological functioning associated with prostate cancer: cross-sectional comparison of patients treated with radiotherapy, brachytherapy, or surgery. J Pain Symptom Management 2005; 30: 474–484.

Knight SJ, Latini DM. Sexual side effects and prostate cancer treatment decisions: patient information needs and preferences. Cancer J. 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):41-4.

Kyrdalen AE, Dahl AA, Hernes E, Cvancarova M, Fosså SD. Fatigue in hormone-naı¨ve prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy or definitive radiotherapy. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2010 Jun;13(2):144-50. Epub 2010 Jan 26.

Levin R, Riley A. The physiology of human sexual function. Psychiatry. 2007 Mar;6(3):90–4.

Lilleby W, Fossa S, Waehre H, Olsen DR. Long-term morbidity and quality of life in patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing definitive radiotherapy or radical prostatectomy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1998; 43: 735–743.

Maliski SL, Kwan L, Orecklin JR, Saigal CS, Litwin MS. Predictors of fatigue after treatment for prostate cancer. Urology 2005; 65: 101–108.

McKee, A.L. and Schover, L.R. Sexuality rehabilitation. Cancer Supplement: Cancer Rehabilitation in the New Millenium, 92(s4), 1008-1011

Potosky AL, Knopf K, Clegg LX, Albertsen PC, Stanford JL, Hamilton AS, Gilliland

FD, Eley JW, Stephenson RA, Hoffman RM. Quality-of-Life outcomes after primary androgen deprivation therapy: results from the prostate cancer outcomes study. J Clin Oncol 2009; 19(17):3750-3757.

Ream E, Quennell A, Fincham L, Faithfull S, Khoo V, Wilson-Barnett J, et al. Supportive care needs of men living with prostate cancer in England: a survey. Br J Cancer. 2008 Jun 17;98(12):1903–9.

Stone P, Richardson A, Ream E, Smith AG, Kerr DJ, Kearney N. Cancer-related fatigue: inevitable, unimportant and untreatable? Results of a multi-centre patient survey. Cancer Fatigue Forum. Ann. Oncol. 2000 Aug;11(8):971–5.

Walker LM, Robinson JW. The unique needs of couples experiencing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Sex Marital Ther. 2010;36(2):154–65.

Changes in penis size

Albersen M, Joniau S, Claes H, Van Poppel H. Preclinical Evidence for the Benefits of Penile Rehabilitation Therapy following Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy. Advances in Urology 2008: 594868.

Dalkin BL, Christopher BA. Preservation of penile length after radical prostatectomy: early intervention with a vacuum erection device. International Journal of Importence Research 2007; 19 (5):501-4

Gontero P, Galzerano M, Bartoletti R, Magnani C, Tizzani A, Frea B, Mondaini N. New insights into the pathogenesis of penile shortening after radical prostatectomy and the role of postoperative sexual function. Journal of Urology 2007; 178 (2): 602-7

Haliloglu A, Baltaci S, Yaman O. Penile Length Changes in Men Treated With Androgen Suppression Plus Radiation Therapy for Local or Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer The Journal of Urology 2007:77, 128-130

Kirby M. Best practice guidelines on the use of vacuum constriction devices for erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy. British Society for Sexual Medicine; 2011 Jan.

McCullough, A. Penile change following radical prostatectomy: size, smooth muscle atrophy, and curve. Current Urology Reports. 9(6):492-9, 2008 Nov

Zippe CD, Pahlajani G. Vacuum erection devices to treat erectile dysfunction and early penile rehabilitation following radical prostatectomy. Current Urology Reports. 2008; 9(6):506-13.

Changes to ejaculation and orgasm

Barnas JL, Pierpaoli S, Ladd P, Valenzuela R, Aviv N, Parker M, et al. The prevalence and nature of orgasmic dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. BJU Int. 2004 Sep;94(4):603–5.

Choi JM, Nelson CJ, Stasi J, Mulhall JP. Orgasm associated incontinence (climacturia) following radical pelvic surgery: rates of occurrence and predictors. J Urol. 2007 Jun;177(6):2223-6.

Lee J, Hersey K, Lee CT et al. Climacturia following radical prostatectomy: prevalence and risk factors. J Urol 2006; 176:2562-5

Merrick GS, Wallner K, Butler WM, Lief JH, Sutlief S. Short-term sexual function after prostate brachytherapy. Int J Cancer 2001;96:313-9

Nillsson AE, Carlsson S, Jonsson MN, Adding C, Nyberg T, Steinbeck G, Wklund NP. Orgasm associated urinary incontinence and sexual life after radical prostatectomy. Journal of Sexual Medicine. 2011 Sep; 8(9): 2632-9.

Fertility

Boehmer D, Badakhshi H, Kuschke W, Bohsung J, Budach V. Testicular Dose in Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy: Impact on Impairment of Fertility and Hormonal Function Strahlenther Onkol 2005: 181(3):179-84.

Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority S and ID. HFEA - Code of Practice 8 [Internet]. [cited 2013 Jan 14]. Available from: http://www.hfea.gov.uk/code.html

Khasksar SJ, Laing R W, Langley S E Fertility after prostate brachytherapy BJU Int. 2005;96(6):915.

Mydlo JH. Lebed B. Does brachytherapy of the prostate affect sperm quality and/or fertility in younger men? Scandinavian Journal of Urology & Nephrology. 38(3):221-4, 2004.

The effects of cancer treatment on reproductive function. Guidance on management [Internet]. [cited 2013 Jan 14]. Available from: http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/effects-cancer-treatment-reproductive-function-guidance-management

Your thoughts and feelings

Arrington MI. Sexuality, society, and senior citizens: An analysis of sex talk among prostate cancer support group members. Sex Cult. 2000 Dec 1;4(4):45–74

Beck AM, Robinson JW, Carlson LE. Sexual intimacy in heterosexual couples after prostate cancer treatment: What we know and what we still need to learn. Urol Oncol. 2009 Mar-Apr;27(2):137-43. Epub 2008 Mar 4.

Burns SM and Mahalik JR. Understanding how masculine gender scripts may contribute to men’s adjustment following treatment for prostate cancer. American Journal of Men’s Health. May 2007

Burns SM, Mahalik JR Sexual Functioning as a moderator of the relationship between masculinity and men’s adjustment following treatment for prostate cancer. American Journal of Men’s Health Vol 2, 1 March 2008

Canada AL, Neese LE, Sui D, Schover LR. Pilot intervention to enhance sexual rehabilitation for couples after treatment for localized prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2005 Dec 15;104(12):2689-700.

Garos S, Kluck A, Aronoff D. Prostate cancer patients and their partners: differences in satisfaction indices and psychological variables. J Sex Med. 2007 Sep;4(5):1394-403.

Lett C, Tamlyn K, Byers S. Exploring the impact of prostate cancer on men’s sexual well-being. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. Aug 2010

Molton IR, Siegel SD, Penedo FJ, Dahn JR, Kisinger D, Traeger LN et al. Promoting recovery of sexual functioning after radical prostatectomy with group based stress management: the role of interpersonal sensitivity. J Psychosom Res 2008; 64:527

Nelson CJ, Choi JM, Mulhall JP, Roth AJ. Determinants of sexual satisfaction in men with prostate cancer. J Sex Med. 2007 Sep;4(5):1422–7.

Perez, M. A., Meyerowitz, B. E., Lieskovsky, G., Skinner, D. G., Reynolds, B., & Skinner, E. C. (1997). Quality of life and sexuality following radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer who use or do not use erectile aids.Urology,50, 740–746.

Powel LL, Clark JA. The value of the marginalia as an adjunct to structured questionnaires: experiences of men after prostate cancer surgery. Qual Life Res. 2005 Apr;14(3):827–35.

Rivers BM, August EM, Gwede CK, Hart A Jr, Donovan KA, Pow-Sang JM, et al. Psychosocial issues related to sexual functioning among African-American prostate cancer survivors and their spouses. Psychooncology. 2011 Jan;20(1):106–10

Titta M, Tavolini IM, Moro FD, Cisternino A, Bassi P. Sexual counselling improved erectile rehabilitation after non-nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy or cystectomy – results of a randomized prospective study. J Sex Med 2006;3:267.

Sex and your relationships

Beck AM, Robinson JW, Carlson LE. Sexual intimacy in heterosexual couples after prostate cancer treatment: What we know and what we still need to learn. Urol Oncol. 2009 Mar-Apr;27(2):137-43. Epub 2008 Mar 4.

Burns SM and Mahalik JR. Understanding how masculine gender scripts may contribute to men’s adjustment following treatment for prostate cancer. American Journal of Men’s Health. May 2007

Canada AL, Neese LE, Sui D, Schover LR. Pilot intervention to enhance sexual rehabilitation for couples after treatment for localized prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2005 Dec 15;104(12):2689-700.

Fergus, K D. The rupture and repair of the couple’s communal body with prostate cancer. Families, Systems and Health. 2011; 29L2, 95-113

Reese JB, Keefe FJ, Somers TJ, Abernethy AP. Coping with sexual concerns after cancer: the use of flexible coping. Support Care Cancer. 2010 Jul;18(7):785-800. Epub 2010 Feb 18

Rolland, JS. In sickness and in health: The impact of illness on couples’ relationships. J Martial Family Ther 1994;20:327-48

Walker, LM and Robinson J.W. The unique needs of couples experiencing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy. 18 Feb 2010

Gay and bisexual men

Blank TO. Gay men and prostate cancer: invisible diversity. J. Clin. Oncol. 2005 Apr 20;23(12):2593–6

Cornell D. A Gay Urologist’s Changing Views on Prostate Cancer. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy. 2005;9(1-2):29–41

Department of Health. Gay Men’s Health, Briefings for health and social care staff. Briefing 6. 2007

Goldstone SE. The Ups and Downs of Gay Sex After Prostate Cancer Treatment. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy. 2005;9(1-2):43–55.

Latini DM, Hart SL, Coon DW, Knight SJ. Sexual rehabilitation after localized prostate cancer: current interventions and future directions. Cancer J. 2009 Feb;15(1):34–40.

Mitteldorf D. Psychotherapy with Gay Prostate Cancer Patients. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy. 2005;9(1-2):57–67

Pillet S. Don’t ask, don’t tell? The unique needs of GLBT patients with cancer. ONS Connect. 2011 Jan;26(1):8–12

Sex when you’re single

Boehmer U, Babayan RK. Facing erectile dysfunction due to prostate cancer treatment: Perspectives of men and their partners. Cancer Invest 2004;22:840-8

Kazer Wallace M, Harden J, Burke M, Sanda MG, Hardy J, Bailey D E. The experiences of unpartnered men with prostate cancer: a qualitative analysis. Journal Cancer Survivorship. (2011). 5:132-141

Lett C, Tamlyn K, Byers S. Exploring the impact of prostate cancer on men’s sexual well-being. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. Aug 2010

Support for partners

Badr H. Taylor CL. Sexual dysfunction and spousal communication in couples coping with prostate cancer. Psycho-Oncology. 18(7):735-46, 2009.

Beck AM, Robinson JW, Carlson LE. Sexual intimacy in heterosexual couples after prostate cancer treatment: What we know and what we still need to learn. Urol Oncol. 2009 Mar-Apr;27(2):137-43.

Bruun P, Pedersen B, Osther P, Wagner L. Prostate cancer – friend or enemy. Part two, the daughter. International Journal of Urological Nursing. 2010 Vol4. No 3

Burke, MA, Lowrance W, Perczek R (2003) Emotional and cognitive burden of prostate cancer. Urologic Clinics of North America; 30:295-304

Cliff A, Macdonagh R. Psychosocial morbidity in prostate cancer:ll. A comparison of patients and partners. BJU International. 2000;86:834–9.

Couper JW, Bloch S, Love A, Duchesne G, Macvean M, Kissane D. The psychosocial impact of prostate cancer

Eton DT, Lepore SJ. Prostate cancer and health-related quality of life: a review of the literature. Psycho-Oncol. 2002;11(4):307)

Fergus, K D. The rupture and repair of the couple’s communal body with prostate cancer. Families, Systems and Health. 2011; 29L2, 95-113

Kornblith AB, Herr HW. Quality of life of patients with prostate cancer and their spouses. Cancer. 1994;73:2791–802.5.

Lett C, Tamlyn K, Byers S. Exploring the impact of prostate cancer on men’s sexual well-being. Journal of psychosocial oncology. Aug 2010

Resendes LA, McCorkle R. Spousal responses to prostate cancer: an integrative review. Cancer Invest. 2006 Mar;24(2):192-8.

Sander S, Pedro LW, O’Carroll-Bantum E, et al. Couples surviving prostate cancer: long term intimacy needs and concerns following treatment, Clin J Oncol Nurs 2006;10:503-8

Segrin C, Badger TA. Psychological distress in different social network members of breast and prostate cancer survivors. Research in Nursing and Health 2010, 33, 450-464

Sjovall, K., Attner, B., Lithman, T., Noreen, D., Gunnars, B., Thome, B., & Olsson, H. (2009). Influence on the health of the partner affected by tumor disease in the wife or husband based on a population-based register study of cancer in Sweden. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28, 4781–4786.

Walker LM. Robinson JW. The unique needs of couples experiencing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy. 36(2):154-65, 2010.